November 29, 2021

The Samanids (261-395 AH / 874-1004 AD) were a dynasty of Sunni Persian rulers and rulers who ruled large parts of Transoxiana for about two centuries under the seal and rule of the Abbasid caliphs. The center of this government was in Khorasan and Farrood, and in its largest extent, it ruled over all of present-day Afghanistan and large parts of present-day Tajikistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. John and Elias was founded. Each of them controlled part of the Samanid lands and ruled as Abbasids. Finally, in 892 AD, Ismail Samani, after overthrowing the Saffarids, handed over Taherian to the caliph and turned the whole region under the rule of the Samanids into a single ruler by the order of the caliph, because the Saffarids were the only government with a seal. And the rule and order of the caliph had not come to power and in fact they had taken part of the Abbasid territory in Iran by force of the sword; At the same time, the developments in Khorasan created the situation in such a way that this region came under the command of Ismail; Thus, although the Samanids legally recognized the caliphate, they became virtually an independent state. The Samanid government was part of the Iranian Middle Ages, which led to the re-emergence of Iranian culture and the Persian language. During this period, Iranian identity was reconstructed and adapted to Islamic identity. The Samanids showed great interest in science and art, which eventually led to the rise of thinkers such as Rudaki, Ferdowsi, and Ibn Sina. At the same time, Bukhara became a rival to Baghdad and in terms of splendor attacked the capital of the Abbasids. The Samanid emirs considered themselves the heirs of the Sassanid emperors. However, St. Martin considered them to be descendants of the Parthians; Since they claimed that their descendants belonged to Bahram Choobin, their connection with the Mehran family, one of the seven Pahlavi (Parthian) families in the Sassanid era, is more probable. The author of the book Geography of the Limits of the World from the East to the West, which was itself between Khorasan and the contemporary of the Samanid government, describes its administrative situation as follows: "The kingdom of Khorasan was separated in ancient times, and the kingdom of Transoxiana was separated. Now both are the same, and the emir of Khorasan sits in Bukhara and is from it, he is one of the children of Bahram, and they call him the king of the east, and all his people are his servants, and in the borders of Khorasan they are kings, and they call him the king of the surrounding . »


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