Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni


December 6, 2021

Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Nadim (361–421 AH), nicknamed Saif al-Dawlah, Fahim al-Dawlah, Sultan Madi, Parviz al-Mulla, Ghazi, and known as Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, was the most powerful sultan of the Turkic dynasty and the Ghaznavids. Sultan Mahmud, who was the first independent ruler and the greatest member of the Ghaznavid dynasty, is known for his warlikeness, fearlessness, and many court conquests and glories in the history of Islam, especially his conquests in India and the booty he brought from there. He was the first ruler in the realm of the Islamic caliphate to call himself a "sultan" to show his independence from the caliphate, although the caliph had only accepted the title of emir for him. He made Ghazni the center of his government, which included present-day Afghanistan, northwestern India, parts of Pakistan, and eastern Iran. Sultan Mahmud extended his conquests to the west and north of Iran and in 1029 he marched on Rey, overthrew its ruler (Majdal Doleh Dailami) and continued his attacks on northwestern Iran, thus making him the most powerful and vast empire known in the world. Islam has been formed since the time of the Abbasid Caliphate. Biography He was born on the 10th of Muharram in the year 361 AH (November 2, 971 AD) in the city of Ghazni in the Zabulistan region. His father, Sabkatgin, was a Turkic soldier of the Samanid army who founded the Ghaznavid monarchy in 977 in Ghazni. Sabkatgin declared himself a subject of the Samanids who ruled over Khorasan and Transoxiana. Mahmoud's mother was an aristocratic girl from Zabulistan and hence she is known in some sources as Mahmud Zawli ("Mahmud from Zabulistan"). Mahmud came to the Emirate after the death of his father Sabkatgin in 387 AH after defeating his brother Ismail. Mohammad and Massoud, two children of Sultan Mahmud, were born to two mothers a few months apart in age (older than Massoud). Massoud mentioned. Muhammad had a poetic nature and was a weak person, but unlike him, Massoud was very powerful and belligerent. Mahmud Ghaznavi died on the 17th of Rabi al-Thani in the year 421 AH (April 30, 1030 AD) in Ghazni. After his death, he was called Amir Madi.


In 994, Mahmud joined his father, Sabkatgin, in order to help Amir Samani, Noah II, in the conquest of Khorasan by his superior supporters. During this period, the Samanid Empire was very weak and changed domestic political reforms as different factions sought to seize power. Among the main ones are Abolghasem Simjouri, Faeq, Abu Ali Bakhtozin, Al Bo

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