potato

Article

November 29, 2021

Potato or in Persian Afghanistan Potato is a plant from the genus Potato that has compound and cut leaves and white or purple flowers. The fruit is small, spherical, red, pungent and poisonous; But it has a food (surface root) that contains a lot of starch. Potatoes are the fourth most widely cultivated crop in the world after corn, wheat and rice. There are about 4,000 varieties of potatoes, including common commercial varieties, each with specific agricultural or culinary characteristics. Potatoes are the fourth largest and most consumed food product of human beings after corn, wheat and rice.

Botany

Potatoes with the scientific name of Solanum thiobrosome belong to the Solanaceae family in terms of botany, in which there are other important plants such as tomatoes, eggplants and peppers. Potato flowers in five parts (5 petals are glued together and 5 sepals are glued together). The number of flags is 5, which are connected to each other and make an anther tube, and the female has come out of it. This plant has different cultivars which are divided into early, late and medium and according to the use of this plant, it is divided into edible, fodder and industrial potatoes (for the use of alcohol or starch or sugar). According to studies, different species of potatoes are scattered from Chile to the south of the United States and from sea level to an altitude of 4800 meters, but in these species in terms of morphology or in other words the type of plant, leaves, flowers, etc. there is a lot of diversity. In potatoes, the number of base chromosomes in the genus Solanum is twelve. Potato is a perennial herbaceous plant, but is cultivated in agriculture as an annual plant. The plant usually grows through seed tubers, and from the buds on the seed tubers, branches and aerial parts are formed, and the roots are formed from the primordia on the buds. On these branches and aerial parts, stems, foliage, stems, roots, inflorescences and the next generation of tubers are formed. Of course, potatoes can also be propagated by culturing cells, meristems, tissues, buds, tuber components, true seeds, leaves or cuttings of the stem.

History

American scientists have concluded that the origins of all types of potatoes today can be traced to a single plant that was cultivated in Peru more than 7,000 years ago. Potatoes were transported from South America to Spain around 1570 by Spanish conquerors, and their cultivation spread throughout Europe. s

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