Shia

Article

December 6, 2021

Shia is the second largest religion of the followers of Islam. The word Shia is a short form of "Shia Ali" meaning the follower or party of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Imam. Shiites make up between 10 and 20 percent of the world's Muslim population and 38 percent of the Muslim population in the Middle East. Imamiyya or Shia Twelver Imami is the largest branch of Shia and the term Shia is often used for it by default. The Shiite religion is based on an interpretation of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of Muhammad, which has been expressed and taught through the Shiite Imams. The common denominator of all Shiites is the belief in the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib to succeed Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and the Imamate after him by God. Shiites believe that only God can appoint a person as the Imam to preserve Islam, teach the Shari'a and lead the ummah. Definition in words and terms Shia in the word refers to two meanings, one is the agreement and coordination of two or more people on a matter, and the other is the following of one person or group, of another person or group. In Arabic it basically means one, two or a group of followers. In the Qur'an, this word has been used several times in this sense. For example, in verse 15 of Surah Qasas, one of the followers of Moses is mentioned as the Shiite of Moses and in another place Ibrahim is mentioned as the Shiite of Noah. In the history of Islam, the word Shiite, in its original meaning and lexicon, was used for the followers of different people. For example, Ali ibn Abi Talib is sometimes mentioned and sometimes Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan is mentioned. But the word gradually took on a idiomatic meaning and applied only to the followers of Ali who believed in his Imamate. After Muhammad's death, those who believed in Ali Ibn Abi Talib's priority for the caliphate were called Shiites. The only difference between this group and other Muslims until the time of Muhammad Baqir was their love for the Ahl al-Bayt and their belief in their exclusive competence for Muslim rule. Since then, the Shiites have gradually emerged as a separate school of jurisprudence. During the time of Jafar Sadegh, with the spread of theological discussions, the Shiites (his followers) established their own school theologically alongside the Mu'tazilites and the Ash'arites. And the Abbasids believed among most of his followers that there would be no change in the political situation of the Shiites until the uprising of Ghaem al-Muhammad (who was not known), and that is why the Shiites of the Twelve Imams were smooth until many years later.

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