Hijri lunar calendar
The Hijri lunar calendar or Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar used by Muslims and in many Islamic countries as a religious yearbook or in some cases a civil yearbook. This yearbook is used in many Islamic rituals, such as fasting, Hajj, determining the sacred month, and mourning. During the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph established the Sassanid-style court with the help of Iranian teachers to govern the conquered countries. The date of emigration of the Prophet of Islam replaced the date of the coronation of the Sassanid king, who were 16 years apart. It is sometimes referred to as the lunar calendar.
Before the globalization of the Gregorian calendar in many Islamic countries and the officialization of the solar Hijri calendar in Iran and Afghanistan, the Hijri calendar was the main calendar of Islamic countries and historical events were recorded in the vast majority of cases with this calendar.
The lunar calendar was common among the pre-Islamic Arabs. At first, there was an added fish called Nisi, which was included in the lunar calendar almost every three years, so that the months are always in a solar year. However, in the year 10 AH, after the return of verses 36 and 37 of Surah Tawbah, stating that the number of months of the year with God is twelve months, the use of this month became obsolete.
The lunar calendar has not been common since the beginning of the Muslim migration from Mecca to Medina, but was recognized as the second caliph 15 years after the date of Muhammad's migration and during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab. It is known that the early Muslims of Islam, based on the proposal of Ali ibn Abi Talib and the approval of the caliph of the time, made the fateful migration of the Prophet of Islam from Mecca to Medina the beginning of the lunar year. For this reason, lunar history has been called the Hijri lunar date. It has also been said; Because Omar felt that in order to distribute wealth and pay remittances, a historian was needed who could know the future and the past, he asked one of the Iranians about the usual custom in this regard and realized that the Iranians had chosen a historical origin to know their age. After consulting with his companions at the suggestion of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Omar made the date of Muhammad's migration the beginning of the history of Islam and made the first of Muharram the first of the year AH.
The origin of the Hijri lunar calendar, like the solar Hijri calendar, is the year of the migration of the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, in 622 AD from Mecca to Medina. The beginning of the emigration of the Prophet's