December 6, 2021
Gilan (In Gilaki: Gilan or Giloon), is one of the northern provinces of Iran with the capital of Rasht. Different opinions have been expressed about the name of Gilan and the meanings of the word Gil. Dehkhoda's dictionary derives the word Gilan from "Gil", in addition to the suffix "an", meaning the place of residence of the Gilas, and adds that the form of this word in the Pahlavi language was Gelan and among the Greeks it was Gelae. The province is bounded on the north by the Caspian Sea and Azerbaijan, with which it has an international border through Astara, on the west by Ardabil province, on the south by Zanjan and Qazvin provinces, and on the east by Mazandaran province. Gilan covers an area of 14,044 square kilometers and its population according to the 2016 census is 2,530,696 people. Gilan is the tenth most populous province and the second most populous province in northern Iran after Mazandaran province. The population density in this province with 177 people per square kilometer is the third in Iran. Rasht metropolis with 46% of the total population of the province, is the center and most populous city in the north of the country and the eleventh most populous city in Iran. Other densely populated cities of this province include the cities of Anzali port, the most important Iranian port on the Caspian Sea, Lahijan, Talesh, Langrud, Rudsar, Astara port, Soomehsara and so on. The nature of Gilan is covered with forest and has a temperate and humid climate. This province includes the green areas of the northwest of the Alborz mountain range and the western part of the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Gilan province was included in the national divisions of Iran as an independent province in 1344. This region was formerly known as the province of Gilan and its environs later as the first province. The tradition of resistance against the occupiers is a recurring theme in the writings of local and nationalist writers and historians (including Sadegh Hedayat, Ahmad Kasravi, Gholam Hossein Sadeghi, Mohsen Azizi). According to Minorsky, they consider Gilan to be the "flagship of Iranianism" throughout history.