1945

Article

August 20, 2022

Events

January–March

January 5 – The Soviet Union recognized Poland's new pro-Soviet government. January 10 – Grigori Savonenkov, the vice-chairman of the Supervisory Commission, announced that the Soviet Union demanded the return of Inger orphans between the ages of 1 and 16 who moved to Finland during the Continuation War. Several Inger children had managed to be adopted by Finnish families. January 10 – The Germans retreated from their positions at Lätäseno in Käsivarren Lapland. There were no more actual battles between the Germans and the Finns led by General Albert Puroma. January 12 - Soviet forces launched a general offensive in Poland along the Vistula, East Prussia and Silesia (Operation Vistula–Oder and East Prussian Offensive). January 12 – Minesweeper Louhi drove a German submarine into a mine off Hanko and sank. 11 people from the ship's crew drowned. January 12 − President Mannerheim appointed infantry general Erik Heinrichs as commander of the defense forces. January 15 − Mass transports of Ingerians from Finland to the Soviet Union ended. January 17 - The Soviet Union captures Warsaw. January 17 - Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg was captured by Soviet forces in Budapest and disappeared without a trace. January 17 – The Germans left the Chełmno extermination camp at night as the Red Army approached the area. Before that, all the remaining prisoners had been shot. January 17 - The Germans begin the evacuation of Auschwitz. 58,000 prisoners were sent by train and on foot on a death march westward along the roads of Upper and Lower Silesia. After many days of marching, 19.–23. January 1945 the prisoners were loaded onto freight trains. During the entire evacuation, about 15,000 of the prisoners died, and 43,000 survived to the western camps. In the spring of 1945, they too had to go on another march. January 20 - The Supervisory Commission ordered the operation of the Reserve Officer School to be suspended. The 61st course was in progress at the school and it operated temporarily in Niinisalo. January 20 - Journalist and politician Ernesti Hentunen started publishing the Totuuden Torvi magazine again, which had previously been published between 1928 and 1933. January 23 - "Kuutoset" conducted a parliamentary survey of those Finnish politicians who they considered to have been responsible for Finland's entry into the continuation war. January 20 - German SS guards left the Auschwitz concentration camp. January 25 - The government abolished the Finnish Armed Brothers' Union due to pressure from SKP and the Supervisory Commission. Bourgeois parties and SDP strongly disapproved of the measure. January 27 – The Red Army entered Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland and found the concentration camps. Most of the surviving prisoners were in very poor condition. The troops released 7,650 prisoners who were still there in Auschwitz, of which 450 were under 15 years old. In the warehouses of the Auschwitz camp, huge quantities of prisoners' civilian clothes and other belongings were found, as well as 7.7 tons of human hair packed ready for transport, which was estimated to have come from about 140,000 women. Camp leaders and guards were imprisoned. January 27 − The Red Army Choir, led by its founder Aleksandr Aleksandrov, arrived for its first visit to Finland and held a concert at the National Theatre. January 28 - President K. J. Ståhlberg turned 80. In connection with the anniversary, a large public celebration was organized in Helsinki's exhibition hall. January 30 – Wilhelm Gustloff sank in the Baltic Sea after being hit by three torpedoes fired by the Soviet submarine S-13; 9,300 refugees drowned. January 31 - Prime Minister J. K. Paasikivi called on Finland's leading wartime politicians to step aside from political activities in order to convince the Soviet Union and Great Britain that Finland had abandoned s