Africa

Article

May 28, 2022

Africa is the second largest continent in the world. It covers an area of ​​30,365,000 square kilometers, which is 20.3 percent of the Earth’s land area. Africa's approximately 1.2 billion people make up about 15 percent of humanity. Africa consists of several plateaus. The largest river on the continent is the Nile, the largest lake is Lake Victoria and the highest mountain is Kilimanjaro. Most of Africa belongs to the tropical climate zone, the northernmost and southernmost regions to the subtropical. North Africa is home to the great Sahara Desert, and Central and West Africa are covered in dense and humid tropical rainforests. Africa has a diverse fauna. There are several thousand ethnic groups in Africa. Today, there are 54 independent states in Africa. Their borders date back to the colonial period and are not based on nationalities or tribes. Most African countries gained independence in the 1960s. Wars, instability and population growth continue to plague the continent today. Africa is a continent rich in natural resources but poor in economy. Africa is the culmination of many of the world’s worst problems, such as poverty, AIDS, lack of food and water, and poor governance. Africans suffered from the colonial system of the century and before that from slavery.

Etymology

The ancient Greeks called the northern part of the continent Libya. The first known mention of Africa is in the 100th century BC. from the beginning by the Roman poet Ennisus. He referred by word to the region of Carthage. The Romans destroyed Carthage in 146 BC. and named their first southern southern province of Africa. The province roughly comprised present-day Tunisia and parts of Algeria. Later, Africa expanded to mean a larger area, but only since the 15th century has it meant the entire continent. The origin of the name Africa may be in the Phoenician word afer, black, in the plural Afri. The Romans called the Berbers living in the area African.

Geography

Africa is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean, on the northeast by the Suez Canal and the Red Sea, on the east by the Indian Ocean and on the west by the Atlantic. Africa is divided geographically into five parts: North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa and South Africa. Africa covers an area of ​​30.365 million square kilometers. From the northernmost point of Africa, Ras ben Saku in Tunisia (37 ° 21 'N), to the southernmost, Cape Agulhas in South Africa, the distance is approximately 8,000 kilometers. It is approximately 7,400 kilometers from the westernmost point of the continent, the Cape Verde Peninsula in Senegal (17 ° 33'22 ”W), the easternmost point to Sar Hafun in Somalia (51 ° 27'52” E). The coastline of Africa is approximately 26,000 kilometers. Compared to other continents, Africa’s coasts are fairly straight, with no vast peninsulas or bays. Located on the southeast coast of Africa, Madagascar is the world's fourth largest island. In the northwestern part of Africa are the Atlas Mountains, which are geologically the youngest part of the continent. The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro, which peaks at 5,895 meters above sea level. Africa's largest river is the Nile, which flows into the Mediterranean and is considered the longest river in the world for about 6,690 kilometers. Other major rivers in Africa are the Congo River (4,630 km), the Sambesi River (2,735 km) and the Niger River (4,100 km). Most of Africa’s major lakes are located in the East African Burial Ground. The largest lakes are, for example, Lake Victorian, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Njassa, Lake Albertin and Lake Chad.

Climate and vegetation zones

Most of Africa belongs to the tropical climate zone, the northernmost and southernmost regions to the subtropical. North Africa has a large heath in the Sahara. To the north is a narrow Mediterranean coastal zone. Sub-Saharan Africa is a dry area that is gradually changing from a semi-desert to a savannah. Central and