December 8, 2021

Bulgaria (bulg. Bulgaria, Bulgaria), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgaria, Republic of Bulgaria) is a country in the Balkans in south-eastern Europe. It is located on the shores of the Black Sea and is bordered by Greece and Turkey to the south, Serbia and northern Macedonia to the west, and Romania to the north. The capital of Bulgaria is Sofia. The country has a population of about 7 million and covers an area of ​​110,879 square kilometers. The culture of the country developed under the auspices of the monasteries also during Ottoman rule. After World Wars, the country was part of the communist bloc for more than forty years. The multi - party system and the market economy have been in place since 1989, and Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007.


Bulgaria consists of the ancient regions of Thrace, Mosiah and Macedonia. The southwestern part of the country is mountainous, with the highest point in the Balkans, Musala, at 2,925 meters above sea level. The Rhodope Mountains extend from the province of Thrace to the Greek side, and the Balkan Mountains run from west to east in the middle of the country. To the southeast, the Black Sea coast has hills and plains. To the north of the Balkan Mountains is the Danube Highlands, whose hills are the country’s granary. The Danube runs along the country's northern border. Other major rivers are the Struma, the Mesta and the Maritsa in the south. The Bulgarian bedrock is prone to earthquakes that occurred 16 times between 1900 and 1986. 608 kilometers), Serbia (318 kilometers) and Turkey (240 kilometers).


Bulgaria is a small country with large climatic differences, as it is located between the continental and Mediterranean climates. Mountains and valleys control the movements of air masses and cause large differences in weather over short distances. The effect of the continent is greatest in winter, when there can be cold and heavy snowstorms. In summer, Bulgaria, like the rest of the Mediterranean, is often dry and hot. The Black Sea only affects the climate of the narrow coastal strip. It is colder and wetter in the north than in the south. The average rainfall is 630 mm per year, but in the mountains it rains in places over 2,500 mm, while the Thrace plateau suffers from drought in summer and annual rainfall is less than 500 millimeters.


Bulgarian vegetation thrives in a particularly diverse mountain range. The highest number of native species grows in the Balkans, where there are more than 90 species and subspecies found only in Bulgaria, of which about 20 species are found in these mountains alone. In total, about 1,900 plant species and subspecies have been found in the Central Balkans National Park. The Black Sea coast is also rich in species and varies greatly in a relatively small area. Bulgaria's fauna is also diverse, with around 100 mammal species and more than 400 bird species. Large mammals include the bear, wolf, golden cabbage, wildcat, otter, tiger hiller, and gems. The number of bat species is the largest in Europe, with 32 of Europe's 39 species living in Bulgaria. Much birdwatching has taken place because the country is located along two major migratory routes and stops migratory birds along both the Black Sea coast and the Struma Valley. There are 17 species of amphibians and 36 species of reptiles. Almost 23% of the country's land area is protected under the European Union's Natura 2000 project.


Early stages and osmania

The first inhabitants of Bulgaria probably arrived during the Neolithic period, no later than 6000 BC. The Thracians inhabited Bulgaria around 2000 BC. Their culture was already quite k

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