The Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a state in Western Europe, in the southern part of the British Isles from 927 to 1707. It covered present-day England and, from 1535, also Wales. The Treaty of Union of 1707 united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain. The countries' own parliaments were abolished and a joint governing body was set up in London, to replace the former English parliament.
England became a unified country between the 6th and 8th centuries as a gradual unification of the kingdoms of the English, Saxons and Jews. King Egbert of Wessex (died 839) is widely regarded as the first king of all England, although his title was Bretwalda (literally British county lord) and in theory he was the leader of equal English rulers. The title of King of England was born two generations later, and its first plaintiff was Alfred the Great, who conquered London from the Vikings and ruled from 871 to 899. In the following centuries, the Scandinavians gained a foothold in England, and for more than half a century the Kingdom of England became part of the vast Danish kingdom created by Knuut Suur, until it gained independence for a moment after the Englishman Edvard the Confessor became king. The arrival of the Norman of William the Conqueror changed the direction of England in 1066.
Sometimes the history of England is considered to begin only with the rise of William the Conqueror in 1066. He reorganized the English aristocracy, but he cannot be said to have founded or united the country. Much of the existing Anglo-Saxon infrastructure was preserved and the Norman settlers in England formed only a minority, albeit one in power. However, the Norman conquest is significant for several reasons. It brought England closer to continental Europe and reduced the Scandinavian influence, created one of Europe’s most advanced systems of government, changed the English language and culture, and laid the groundwork for the conflicts between England and France that continued into the 19th century.
In the following centuries, England was an important part of the state with an emphasis on France, with the title “King of England” being the secondary title of the predominantly French-speaking dukes who ruled French territories. They used the resources of England to strengthen and expand their French territories in the Hundred Years' War. It was only after the loss of French territories that the kings of England adopted the “nationality” and language of the English majority.
The Principality of Wales was under the kings of England by the Decree of Rhuddlan in 1284, and part of England became it in 1535. The religious reformation began in England during the reign of Henry VIII in 1531. At that time the Catholic Church lost its power and was replaced by the Royal The Reformation of England differed from the Reformation of the rest of Europe in that it was more political than theological in nature. The English Civil War was a series of armed clashes between parliamentarians and royalists between 1642 and 1651. It led to the beheading of King Charles I and the proclamation of England as a republic and then as a lord protectorate ruled by Oliver Cromwell. As a result of the Civil War, the monopoly position of the Church of England in matters of religion was broken. Shortly after Cromwell's death, Charles II ascended the throne and the monarchy was restored. Politically, a civil war would mean that kings could no longer rule without a parliament, although this was only confirmed in a great revolution later in the same century.
The kingdoms of England and Scotland, which had previously been in the personal union, were united under the same political system in 1707.
Elsewhere on the topic
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