England is a country located mainly on the island of Great Britain. England is part of the United Kingdom, the largest state in the United Kingdom, in terms of both area and population. Its population is about 84 per cent of the British population, and England covers two-thirds of the British Isles. England is bordered by Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The country is surrounded by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Atlantic and the English Channel.
England has not had autonomy since the Treaty of Union of 1707, when the Kingdom of Great Britain was established. However, it differs in its legal system from Scotland and Northern Ireland, as well as smaller areas such as the Isle of Man, as it is part of England and Wales. The largest city in England, London, is the capital of the United Kingdom. The English name is derived from the ancient English word "Englaland" and means the land of the English.
England comprises two-thirds of the British Isles. It is located in the southern and central part of the island. The country also includes some islands, the largest of which is the Isle of Wight. England is closer to mainland Europe than Scotland and Wales, and the shortest distance to France via the English Channel is just 38 kilometers. A canal tunnel near Folkestone connects the English mainland. The border between England and at the same time the whole of Britain and France is in the middle of the tunnel.
Most of England has rolling hills, but the north is more mountainous. There, the low mountain range of the Pennines divides the west and east. There is also a shallow bog in the East of England, much of which has been drained for recovery.
The largest city in England is London, which consists of 32 city districts; the actual city of london is very small. The second largest is Birmingham. It is followed by Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol and Manchester. The highest temperature measured in England was 38.5 ° C on 10 August 2003 in Kent. The lowest observed temperature in England is −26.1 degrees Celsius on 10 January 1982 in Shropshire, near the Welsh border. The most important rivers in England are the Thames, Severn, Trent, Humber, Ouse, Tyne, Mersey, Dee and Avon. There are also hundreds of other rivers in the country.
England as a unified country took shape between the 6th and 8th centuries with the gradual unification of the kingdoms of the English, Saxons and Jews. King Egbert of Wessex (died 839) is widely regarded as the first king of all of England, although his title was Bretwalda (literally British county governor) and in theory he was the leader of equivalent English rulers. The title of King of England was born two generations later, and its first plaintiff was Alfred the Great, who liberated London from Viking rule and ruled from 871 to 899. In the following centuries, the Scandinavians gained a foothold in England, and for more than half a century the Kingdom of England became part of the vast Danish kingdom created by Knuut Suur, until it gained independence for a moment after the reign of Edward the Confessor. The arrival of the Norman of William the Conqueror changed the direction of England in 1066.
Sometimes the history of England is considered to begin only with the rise of William the Conqueror in 1066. He reorganized the English aristocracy, but he cannot be said to have founded or united the country. Much of the existing Anglo-Saxon structure survived and the Norman settlers in England formed only a minority, albeit one in power. However, the Norman conquest is significant for several reasons. It brought England closer to continental Europe, reduced the Scandinavian influence, created one of Europe’s most advanced systems of government, changed the English language and culture, and laid the groundwork for the conflicts between England and France that continued into the 19th century.
In the following v