Republic of Korea

Article

December 8, 2021

The Republic of Korea (kor. 대한민국, Daehan minguk), informally South Korea (kor. 한국, Hanguk) is a state in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. It shares a land border with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, North Korea, and a maritime border with China in the west and Japan in the east. With an area of ​​100,210 km² and a population of about 50 million, South Korea is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The country’s largest city is the capital, Seoul, with a population of over 10 million. The western name of the country comes from the Goryeo dynasty, which ruled the peninsula from 918 to 1392. Based on archaeological finds, the country's first settlement dates back to the early Paleolithic period (2.6 million to 300,000 years ago). Korean history is considered to begin with the kingdom of Gojoseon, founded by the legendary Dangun in 2333 BC. When the three kingdoms of the Korean Peninsula were united under the Bridge, Korea came to rule the Koryŏ dynasty (918–1392), from which the country got its name, and then the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910). Korean independence and the last dynasty ended with the annexation of the empire by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II and Japan's surrender, the Korean Peninsula was divided into Soviet- and US-led occupation zones. South Korea held elections in 1948, which led to the establishment of the Republic of Korea. In its resolution, the United Nations reaffirmed the Republic of Korea as the only legitimate state on the peninsula, but with the support of the Soviet regime, a communist-led rival state was established in North Korea. The Korean War began in 1950 with the invasion of the south by northern forces, the overthrow of which was prevented by the intervention of UN-mandated Western Allied forces, particularly the American and British forces. As the war turned into defeat for North Korea, the People’s Republic of China sent its army to the peninsula. The war ended in 1953 with a ceasefire in place of peace, which confirmed the division of 1945 and created a demilitarized zone with a latitude of 38 °. The demarcation line between the countries remains the most armed and fortified border in the world. In the following decades, South Korea's economy developed significantly, making the country, even poorer than North Korea, one of the world's G-20 economies in the 1960s. After the war, the initially democratic state gradually became more authoritarian, eventually drifting into a military coup in 1961, after which South Korea was ruled by a pro-market military dictatorship. In 1987, the country passed into civilian rule through free elections, and today the country is a stable presidential liberal democracy and a parliamentary multi-party system. Over the decades, the Republic of Korea has undergone five major constitutional amendments. The country is also one of the most technologically advanced and digitally networked countries in the world. In 2006, it had the second highest broadband Internet access per capita in the world and is a leading manufacturer of monitors and mobile phones. South Korea’s entertainment industry has grown exponentially since the 1990s, producing Asia-wide success in pop music, television shows and movies. The phenomenon is known as Hallyu or the “Korean Wave”. However, the country has retained many centuries-old traditions, such as unique cuisine and the worship of the deceased.

Geography

The Republic of Korea comprises the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, which extends about 1,100 kilometers from the Asian continent. The mountainous peninsula is bordered on the west by the Yellow Sea and on the east by the Sea of ​​Japan. Its southern tip extends into the East China Sea and the Korean Strait. The land area is a total of 99,646.16 square kilometers. The estimate is increasing every year due to, among other things, landfill. The land is a mountain

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