Security and defense policy of the European Union


July 6, 2022

The European Union's Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) covers the defense and crisis management of the European Union (EU), which includes, among other things, defense cooperation between member states and defense coordination. The common security and defense policy is part of the EU's broader common foreign and security policy.


In 1948, the Western European Union was founded, but since all its members were also NATO countries, the union was overshadowed by NATO. The Western European Union had no troops of its own. source? In the 1950s, the European Defense Community (EDC) was founded, but it collapsed in August 1954. When was the European security and defense identity (ESDI) developed? In NATO, to strengthen Europe's participation in security and strengthen transatlantic cooperation. ESDI became European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), when? which became the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP).when?source?

Creation of security policy in the 1990s

As a result of the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s, the Declaration of Saint Malo was formed. After the Iraq war, new activity arose in Europe in terms of foreign policy. In 1992, the Petersberg working group, established to deal with the instability of Eastern European countries, decided on the principles in Amsterdam. The principles are humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping tasks, tasks for combat forces in crisis management, including peace making, members have the right of veto on defense matters but on the other hand the obligation of loyalty, and the possibility to abstain from voting. The Treaty of Amsterdam also agreed on the tasks of the Petersberg working group, on the basis of which a common security and defense policy was created. The traditionally reluctant Britain was also involved in the project under the leadership of Prime Minister Tony Blair. At the meeting of NATO ministers in Berlin in 1996, a common European security and defense policy was formed based on NATO structures. The decisions at the NATO ministerial meeting in Berlin were that the Western European Union oversees the creation of ESDI within NATO structures. The idea was that EU countries can act when NATO does not want to participate in the defense of Europe. The decision was also based on the money concerns of the USA with European bases. The Berlin Agreement allowed EU countries to use NATO forces through the Western European Union. The crisis management developed by the Western European Union was brought to the Union. source? In June 1999, at the summit in Cologne, it was decided to merge the Western European Union into the EU. source? The Helsinki European Council also agreed in 1999 on the Helsinki Headline Goals, which was the first agreement to increase the EU's military power. They include a certain number of troops also for the tasks of the Petersberg task force. Helsinki Headline Goal progressed more slowly than expected, and in May 2004 the project was extended until 2010.

21st century

Berlin meeting 2003

In March 2003, the institutional cooperation between the EU and NATO was updated with the Berlin plus agreement. It allows the EU to use NATO's structures and mechanisms and allows them to be used for military operations if NATO decides not to act. The agreement also includes the sharing of information between NATO and the EU. The EU liaison units are in the NATO strategic center and the Naples NATO command center (Joint Force Command). The EU and NATO have largely the same forces, but they can be divided between the organizations depending on the situation. NATO is primary to the extent that the EU acts when NATO does not want to leave?

Brussels 2003

The European Security Strategy, approved in Brussels in December 2003, is a document that guides the EU's international security strategy. According to the document, the main threats to Europe are terrorism, the spread of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflicts, collapsed states and organized crime. source? Euro