The Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was fought on October 14, 1066, between the son of King Harald Godwin of England and the Conqueror of the Normans, Wilhelm the Conqueror. The Normans won the battle that took place near the town of Hastings on a hill bordered by a swamp. According to tradition, an apple tree grew at its top.
Troops and armaments
Harald's troops consisted mainly of conscripts who had been quickly assembled from the immediate area and who were not properly armed. Just a week earlier, Harald had defeated the Vikings invading the ground with heavy losses in the Battle of Stamford Bridge, and his troops were tired and exhausted. The corps of the army consisted of Harald's personal soldiers, who were well-trained and armed infantry. According to some theories, the “crews” that Wilhelm brought with him formed Britain’s first chivalrous system on which a centuries-old feudal society was built. However, later knighthood ideals (nobility, heroism) had not yet taken shape. Wilhelm's cavalry were riding villains rather than knights. The flight path of the arrows was even more stable thanks to the feathers added to them. High-ranking soldiers wore ring armor. All soldiers wore bowling iron helmets with nose guards as well. The Normans also used primitive stains. The battle ax was a more common weapon than the sword because swords were expensive. The Norman Army had fighting horses in which knights used tripods to be able to use weapons from the back of their cavalry.
The Pope had blessed Wilhelm's military expedition, as a result of which there were also brothers in the army with the Pope's pennant as a sign. Harald's advantage was a defensive position on a hill called Senlac Hill, which his men had partially fortified. It was difficult for Vilhelm's cavalry to attack there. In addition, the attack was hampered by the marshy terrain around the hill. On the morning of October 14, Vilhelm and his troops marched towards the English stations. The English defensive front was about a mile long and the sites were protected by steep slopes. Harald's heaviest armed forces were at the forefront, with a lifting force behind them. In half a dozen countries, Wilhelm's trumpeters blew the attack signal. Arrows rained on the necks of the English and the heavy infantry and cavalry of the Normans set out.
Rumors and cunning
For the Normans, the battle was heavy as they faced an uphill. Defensive Englishmen struck horses with their killers and killed the riders who fell to the ground. The flight of terror was to take over the entire Norman army and it was rumored that Duke Vilhelm had already been killed. According to the story, Wilhelm illuminated courage in his troops by revealing his face, shouting, “Look at me closely. I am still alive and by the grace of God I will still be a winner. ” Shortly afterwards, the Knights of the Normans besieged and destroyed those English troops who had made a break on their left. Harald's brothers, who commanded the English sites, fell. The battle continued throughout the afternoon. Vilhelm lured the English conscripts to disengage from their defensive positions by staging the escape terror of their troops, causing the defenders to chase. Yet Harald's heavy troops remained in position and repelled the Normans' attacks. As the evening dawned, Harald was wounded, according to a legend, by an arrow that hit his face. Seeing their king fall, the English lost their fighting spirit and when the Normans again attacked, most of the English army fled the field. Vilhelm had won.
After the fight
It took some years