May 17, 2022

Khrushchev (Russian: хрущёвка) is a 3–5-storey elevator-free apartment building built of bricks or concrete elements in the Soviet Union quickly and cheaply in the 1950s and 1960s, named after Nikita Khrushchev, the then head of the country. The living space in the houses was defined as 10 square meters per person. The purpose of Khrushchev's construction projects was to provide housing for people who moved from rural to urban areas during the era. Khrushchev's construction became widespread in all Eastern European countries. History of Khrushchev Khrushchev construction was based on elemental technology. Already during Stalin's time in 1948, the first prefabricated houses were built in Moscow in the area of ​​the present-day Sokolin Hill district and in Horosevsky Shos with individual projects according to the plans of the Gosstroiproject and the Mosgorproject of the Soviet Academy of Architecture. The plans were drawn up by Vitali P. Lagutenko (Series-7). Khrushchev represented the construction of efficient new construction as a substitute for more demanding building materials and Stalin-era houses in new housing. However, their durability was weaker than before, which was noticed e.g. In the Armenian earthquake of December 1988. The Prefabricated House, sealed in its joints, is generally not as strong as the more traditional, older-walled and more expensive older built-in solutions.

Different types of Khrushchev

Khrushchev is an apartment building built according to the same formula, which represents a source of functionalism in style ?. There are different types of Khrushchev houses, most often prefabricated or brick houses, less often houses built of large concrete elements. The best known are the elemental Khrushchevts. They were very common because construction from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements was rapid. Usually in such houses the thermal insulation of the external walls as well as the sound insulation inside the house is poor. Brick Khrushchev, on the other hand, was mostly built in cities that did not have their own construction industry. Silicate bricks and prefabricated reinforced concrete products such as bulkheads, sledges and stairwells were often used to build brick houses. Such buildings erected rapidly, often affecting the quality of the buildings. Element Khrushchev is divided into demolition and permanent. The Khrushchevs to be demolished were intended as a temporary solution to the housing shortage and were thought to have been in use for 25 years, but some of them have still not been removed from the housing stock. The service life of the permanent Khrushchevs was planned to be 50 years. However, subsequent studies have shown that the service life can be extended to 150 years if the buildings are renovated. Brick Khrushchev belongs to a series of permanent houses with a lifespan of at least 100-150 years. However, individual houses may become unusable in the past due to poor maintenance or poor building quality.

Equipment level

The houses built at the beginning of the Stalin era were very different in level of equipment. The so-called “stalinki” of nomenclature for the elite had central heating, hot and cold water, a separate bathroom and toilet, and an elevator and garbage shaft in the more than five-storey houses. The houses of the ordinary working population often did not have bathrooms, but the sanitary facility had only a sink and a toilet bowl. Residents went to the public saunas for washing. There was a wood stove for cooking. The water in the bathtub dwellings was heated by a water heater running on wood or other solid fuel. Furnace heating was designed for the low stalls. There were also residential buildings without plumbing or drains, in some houses the toilets were of the dry toilet type. The ceilings were made of wood in the so-called workers' stalls and in some of the elite buildings.