Austria

Article

December 8, 2021

Austria (German: Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich), is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It consists of nine states. Austria's neighbors are Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Italy in the west, Slovenia in the south, Hungary in the east and Slovakia, Germany and the Czech Republic in the north. The Alps and the Danube are characteristic of the Austrian landscape.

History

Early history

The Celtic tribes settled east of the Alps about 400 years before the beginning of time. The area was conquered by the Romans in 9 BC. From the 900s to the 13th century, the Austrian Markt, later the Duchy, was ruled by the Babenbergs, followed by the Habsburg tribe. Austria became an archdiocese in the 15th century. It was one of the practically independent states that belonged to the Holy German-Roman Empire, but in a special position that its archduke was almost invariably also the emperor. When the Habsburg monarchy, of which Austria was a central part, repeatedly waged wars against the Ottoman Empire, it gradually conquered the territories belonging to the Ottomans, especially Hungary. However, these were not considered to belong to the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ceased in 1806 when Emperor Frans II relinquished its empire. Two years earlier, however, he had proclaimed the Austrian Empire and became its Emperor under the name Frans I. In 1867, this empire became the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy. The Austrian emperor was in charge of Austria-Hungary until the end of the First World War in 1918.

The original history of the republic

After the First World War, the empire was divided into several states by the Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919. Austria became a republic legally on 10 November 1920. Between 1918 and 1919, Austria was renamed the Republik Deutschösterreich, which was changed to the Republic of Austria at the request of the former. In the autumn of 1922, Austria received a loan from the League of Nations to improve its economy. The country was a republic until 1934, when right-wing Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss disbanded parliamentary policies due to internal conflicts. The dictatorial regime, called the austrophacist, rose to power as early as 1933 with the support of Italian fascists and guardians. Austria was annexed to Nazi Germany in 1938 (Anschluss). Linked to Germany, the country was called Ostmark. There was no opposition to German armed entry, in other words, the administration assisted the occupier.

New Austria 1945

After the Second World War, the Allies occupied Austria from 1945 to 1955. The state territory and the capital Vienna were divided into four occupation zones of the victorious states. In the autumn of 1945, the Supervisory Commission agreed to supplement the caretaker government and to hold free elections. The government was authorized to conduct external relations under the supervision of the Supervisory Commission. In 1955, the country again became a sovereign federal republic under the Austrian Treaty, on the condition that it remain a neutral country and that its neutrality be recognized by the Allies and the Soviet Union. For decades, its arms purchases had similar restrictions to those of Finland, albeit without the obligations imposed by trade balances to purchase arms from the Soviet Union. The country joined the UN and became a friend of the Arab world in a number of crises in the Middle East. elected President of Austria in 1986. Conservative Waldheim, who served as UN Secretary-General from 1972 to 1981

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