January 19, 2022

Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan, Qazaqistan, Kazakhstan) Kazakhstan is the largest landlocked country in the world. Its neighbors are Russia (6,467 km of the common border), China (1,460 km of the common border), Kyrgyzstan (980 km of the common border), Uzbekistan (2,300 km of the common border) and Turkmenistan (380 km of the common border). according to the Language Research Center under the name Kazakh. When talking about a person, the term Cossack refers to a member of an ethnic group of Cossacks. On the other hand, the term Kazakh is also used for the language spoken by the Kazakhs. The Russian names of Russian origin in Kazakhstan, Kazakh and Kazakh are now considered obsolete.


Surface features and water bodies

Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia. Its neighbors to the south are Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, Russia to the north and west and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China to the east. In the west, Kazakhstan is also bordered by the Caspian Sea. However, one-third of the state is lowland and one-fifth is mountainous. The western and southwestern parts of Kazakhstan belong to the deep Caspian. To the south are the Ustjurt valley and the Mangyšlak peninsula. Inland, in turn, there are extensive deserts. The former Aral Sea is surrounded by the Aral Karakum, Betpaqdala in the central part of the state and Moıynqum and Kyzylkum in the southern part. To their south are the Tarbaga Mountains. Dzungarian Alatau, on the other hand, rises south of the deep basin of Lake Balkaš. The peaks of Tienšan rise in the border region of Kyrgyzstan. Most of Kazakhstan belongs to the internal catchment areas. The waters flow into the Caspian Sea, the former Lake Aral, Lake Balhas and Lake Tengiz. The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world, and Kazakhstan has more than 2,300 kilometers of Caspian coastline. Lake Araljärvi has shrunk since the 1960s by the time the rivers were irrigated. The area of ​​the lake has shrunk by 60 percent and the amount of water by 80 percent. At the same time, the salinity of the water has increased to 45 grams per liter from the previous 10 grams per liter. This has created a huge environmental problem. The lake is divided in two, into the southern and northern Araljärvi. To protect the northern part, Kazakhstan built the Kok-Aral dam between the lakes. This could save the northernmost of the lakes, but permanently destroy the southern Aral. There are areas in Kazakhstan that have been contaminated by tests on nuclear and chemical or biological weapons.


Kazakhstan has a continental climate characterized by hot summers and cold winters. There is also a great deal of regional variation in temperature. In the northern and central parts, the average temperature in January is −19 to −16 degrees. In the south, it is −5 to −1.4 degrees. In July, temperatures will rise to 20 degrees in the north and as high as 29 degrees in the south. The annual rainfall in Kazakhstan is quite low. In the mountain valleys of the southern parts of the country, precipitation is 400–500 millimeters, while in the northern and central parts it is 200–300 millimeters.


Kazakhstan is largely a plain and desert, with forests covering only about three% of the country’s land area. Maroon, tamarind and feather grass grow in the dunes and deserts. The animals of the plains are antelopes and quails, while the wilderness is inhabited by wolves, bears, snow

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