The Quran (Arab. القرآن, al-Qurʼān) is one of the holy books of Islam alongside authoritative hadith collections. However, the Qur’an has a special religious status, which is reflected in many things. According to Islam, the Qur’an contains the revelations received from the Prophet Muhammad by God, which began in 610 and continued until the death of the Prophet until 632. According to Islam, revelations were recorded irregularly but remained in people’s memory until the Qur’an was compiled. Muslims believe that the Qur’an was compiled immediately after the death of Muhammad by order of Caliph Abu Bakr and again twenty years after order by Caliph Uthman. The Qur’an is, according to the Islamic view, God’s own speech and has always existed. The book is less than half the length of the New Testament.
The majority of Western Qur’an scholars accept the doctrine that the Qur’an records the revelations of the Prophet Muhammad in the early 600s on the Arabian Peninsula in Mecca and Medina. However, the study of the Qur’an is divided in the West, with some questioning either the time of writing, the author of the book, the place of writing, or all of these. John Wansbrough, for example, considers the turn of the 8th century to be a more accurate time for the compilation of the Qur’an, because nowhere is the work referenced before that. However, separate parts of the Qur’an have survived as early as the 5th or 6th century, proving that at least some of the writings of the Qur’an are very old.
The position of the Qur'an in Islam
All trends in Islam regard the Qur’an as the most important sacred text in Islam. Attitudes towards the Qur’an as an object are extremely respectful in Islam. Reading the Quran is a ritual that follows the rules of purity and beautifully recites the text. However, few Muslims understand the ancient Arabic in which the Qur’an is written. The main idea of reading or listening is in the devotional atmosphere it produces and not in understanding the content. The memorization of the Qur’an is valued in Islam. It is practiced especially in the Koranic schools, which for hundreds of years were the only form of primary education for children in Islamic countries.
According to Islam, the Qur’an is the direct speech of God. The book contains many stories, especially those referring to the books of Moses, which are usually short and fragmentary. The speech of the Qur’an is usually a commentary on previous scriptures and addressed to an audience familiar with the Torah, the Talmud, and the harmony of the gospel. Recurring themes are warning of sin and threatening punishment in the fire of Hell. The great ones resemble sermons in which listeners are given reason to repent and believe in God. The three main reasons for faith are the punishment for unbelief already in this time, the punishment or reward in the future, and the debt of gratitude for the beauty of the world. The Qur’an is the most authoritative text in Islam, but it does not contain nearly all of the most important things about Islam. There are few legal provisions, and nothing is really said about Muhammad. Indeed, the word "Muhammad" appears only four times. Creed, fasting, prayer, alms and pilgrimage, the "five pillars" of Islam, go unreported and the creed is completely missing. In Islam, the hadith tradition complements the Qur'an and provides information about the actual content of religion. Hadith literature also guides the reading of the Qur’an. When the Qur'an speaks of a "prophet" or "messenger of God," it is only in the hadith literature that Muhammad is meant, for this is not apparent from the book itself. The Qur’an itself knows several prophets and messengers of God. The Qur'an is thus interpreted with the help of hadith literature and sometimes in a way that Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila has described as circumferential: the Qur'an is told by Muhammad