October 18, 2021
An endemic or endemic species or subspecies occurs only in a specific, limited and relatively limited geographical area in which it has developed as a result of isolation and to whose conditions it has adapted. Typical habitats for native species include oceanic islands (such as New Zealand, Madagascar, and Hawaii), lakes isolated from other waters (such as Lake Baikal and Lake Malawi) and areas surrounded by mountains, deserts, or glaciers, as well as many diversity centers. The opposite of the endemic is the cosmopolitan that lives on Earth on all or almost all continents. Indigenous species are often particularly sensitive to threats and changes from invasive species. Modern man is a fairly new entrant in many areas, and human activities threaten many native species. Alien species that are intentionally or unintentionally introduced by humans can also be a threat to many native species, especially in isolated or otherwise ecologically sensitive areas. Most of the species that became extinct during the historical period have been endemic. For example, the mountain onion is a native rodent of Fennoscandia that is not found elsewhere. The ringed seal, the Saimaa ringed seal, lives only in the Saimaa watershed, as does the ecological form of salmon, the Saimaa salmon. The extinct Moorish endodo, or drone, occurred on only one island in the Indian Ocean. All maki species live in Madagascar and almost all kangaroos in Australia. Sources Happonen et al: Bios 1: Emaömaailma, pp. 69, 72 and 164. Helsinki: WSOY, 2004. ISBN 951-0-26405-9. Lahti, Kimmo & Rönkä, Antti: Biology: Environmental Ecology. Helsinki: WSOY learning materials, 2006. ISBN 951-0-29702-X.