Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by malaria (Plasmodium). Malaria lesions are spread through snails (Anopheles). The parasite first passes through the mosquito bite to the human liver, from where it passes into the red blood cells. Five species of malaria-causing malaria parasites are known: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium malariae. The most dangerous of these species is Plasmodium falciparum, which is the most common malaria in the tropics. The danger of P. falciparum is due to its ability to infect all red blood cells.
According to the World Health Organization, malaria is one of the worst health problems in the world. According to the organization, an estimated 212 million people became ill with the disease in 2015, and about 429,000 of them died. Most of the deaths were children. It is estimated that about 92% of malaria cases occurred in the WHO Africa domain, 10% in South-East Asia and 2% in the Eastern Mediterranean domain. Between 2010 and 2015, the number of malaria cases decreased by an estimated 21% and the number of deaths by 29%. Malaria is a significant cause of infant mortality, with 70% of deaths in sub-Saharan Africa under the age of 5. Malaria parasite, a malaria parasite that spreads to humans, originally developed in gorillas. The first malaria vaccine was approved by the WHO on 6 October 2021.
Malaria lesions or plasmods are spores of the genus Plasmodium (Apicomplexa). They belong to the main section of the municipality of Chromalveolata, Alveolata, as well as armor algae and ciliates. Malaria-causing malaria subtypes in humans include P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. The most common and dangerous of these is P. falciparum, which causes about 80 percent of malaria cases and 90 percent of malaria deaths. Monkeys, rodents, birds, and other animals have their own plasmod species, including P. knowlesi, P. Inui, P. cynomolgi, P. simiovale, P. brazilianum, P. schwetzi, and P. simium. Of these, at least P. knowlesi and P. cynomolgi have also caused malaria in humans, but it is very rare.
Stages of Malaria Life
When a malaria passes from a mosquito to a human, it is a sporozoite about one micrometer long and narrow. It travels with human blood to the liver, where it penetrates a liver cell and multiplies there by breaking down into cryptocytes. They invade and continue to multiply in other liver cells. However, some of the cryptocytes migrate to red blood cells and are called merozoites. When they continue to multiply, after a certain time, they leave the red blood cells and invade other cells. In this case, their toxic metabolites are released into the bloodstream and cause a typical fever attack for malaria. This is repeated at completely regular intervals, because in the same malaria subspecies the duration of the series of events is quite constant, albeit of different lengths in different species, and the parasites in the same patient are all descended from sporozoites they no longer divide but remain dormant as gametocytes. Their development can only continue if they are again exposed to a mosquito as it sucks blood from a human being. In the mosquito's digestive tract, they become germ cells: either large macrogamets or small microgamets. The combination of micro- and macrogamet creates a zygote that travels to the wall of the mosquito gut. There it is again divided into new sporozoites, after which the cycle can start again from the beginning.
Symptoms and detection of malaria
Symptoms of malaria include severe febrile seizures that begin with recurrent chills, or snoring. There is a lot involved in lowering the fever