Soviet Russia (Russian Советская Россия, Sovetskaya Rossiya, official name Russian Socialist Federal Republic of Russia, Russian Российская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Ресетская Республика Soviet Russia can be considered born in the October Revolution of November 7 (J: 25 October) 1917 and ceased to be an independent state with the birth of the Soviet Union on December 30, 1922. The Soviet Union was formed from the Russian SFNT and the smaller Soviet republics established around it.
The birth of the Soviet state
The February Revolution
By 1917, World War I had already cost the Russian Empire more than a million lives. War fatigue, heavy losses, and dissatisfaction with the emperor alienated from the people were the last straw for the outbreak of the revolution. The winter was also exceptionally harsh, in addition to food, the largest industrial centers began to run short of fuel for heating. Dissatisfaction drove the workers to the barricades in January 1917. The strike accelerated and culminated in a general strike at the end of February. Emperor Nicholas II ordered the head of the St. Petersburg military district to end the unrest by all available means. The Cossacks opened fire on the crowd and the situation seemed to calm down for a moment. Encouraged by this, Nikolai disbanded the Duma. The calming of the situation proved to be a delusion, as the St. Petersburg garrison revolted and moved to the side of the working population.
At this point, the Duma refused to disintegrate and tried to organize itself as a calming force for the situation, as the Duma considered that this would otherwise be done by someone else. The Council of Labor and Military Representatives became the second separate group of power-seekers. It was headed by President Nikolai Chheidze and Vice-President Aleksandr Kerenski. Nikolai's generals told the emperor that he lacked the support of the people and urged him to draw his own conclusions. On March 2, Nicholas II handed over power to his brother Mikhail Alexandrovich, but he refused to accept power. Nicholas II and his family were locked up in Tsarskoye Selo near St. Petersburg. The 300-year period of sovereignty of the Romanov dynasty was over.
The time of the Republic and the rise of the Bolsheviks
On the same day that Nicholas II relinquished power, the Duma Temporary Committee and the Council Executive Committee jointly formed an interim government. The government was headed by Prince Georgi Lvov, but its most prominent figures were Foreign Minister Pavel Miljukov and Justice Minister Aleksandr Kerenski. Kerenski's approval of the government was an attempt to establish cooperation with the St. Petersburg Council. Kerenski served on the board as if he were an agent of the council overseeing government policy. His position in the administration was strong and he was considered the true prime minister of the caretaker government. The Lviv government was supposed to be temporary and had to leave its place after the election, but the election was postponed until November 1917. The February Revolution was a spontaneous collapse of the imperial power rather than an active revolution. The revolution transformed the Russian Republic and left behind two rival political institutions, the caretaker government and the St. Petersburg Council. The caretaker government first declared the fundamental rights of citizens, abolished the death penalty, and released political prisoners. Less