May 28, 2022
Neuvostoliitto (lyhenne NL; ven. Сове́тский Сою́з, Sovetski Sojuz), virallisesti Sosialististen neuvostotasavaltojen liitto (ven. Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, Sojuz Sovetskih Sotsialistitšeskih Respublik kuuntele ääntämys?; lyhenne SNTL, ven. СССР, SSSR) oli Neuvostoliiton kommunistisen puolueen hallitsema sosialistinen valtio , which existed between 1922 and 1991. The Soviet Union was rooted in the October 1917 revolution, when the Bolsheviks overthrew Russia's interim government under Vladimir Lenin and established Soviet Russia. The Russian Socialist Federal Republic was then established, which started a civil war, which was eventually won by the Reds of the Civil War. The Civil War caused a massive famine in 1921–1922. After the Civil War, the Soviet Union was born, which eventually became one of the largest and most powerful states. In 1928, the forced collectivization of agriculture began, in which the kulaks were ousted as a class. Between 1937 and 1938, the persecution of Stalin and, during and after World War II, the displacement of various nationalities within the Soviet Union took place. The death toll is still controversial, but it is estimated at a minimum of about one million executions and a total of about 30 million people. The Soviet Union was one of the winners of World War II. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union was the world’s second superpower and had the world’s second largest GDP. In 1991, the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world (22.4 million square kilometers) and the third largest in population (almost 300 million inhabitants). The capital of the Soviet Union was Moscow. The Soviet Union consisted of Soviet republics of varying numbers. At the end of the Soviet Union, there were fifteen. The Baltic states became independent in August 1991, and the remaining 12 Soviet republics agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union on December 8, 1991. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev announced his resignation on December 25, 1991, as his state no longer existed. Eleven former Soviet republics formed a regional organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), after its break-up. Russia became the largest successor state to the Soviet Union in international law. The Soviet Union was a permanent member of the UN Security Council. In addition to the Soviet Union, the Soviet republics of Ukraine and Belarus were members of the United Nations.