January 19, 2022

The Kingdom of Norway (Kongeriket Norge in Norwegian, Kongeriket Noreg in New Norwegian, Norgga gonagas in Northern Sámi) or Norway is a constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe. The country belongs to the Nordic countries and Scandinavia. It is Sweden's western neighbor and Finland's northern neighbor, and it also shares a border with Russia. Norway (the continental region with its neighboring islands) is the third largest Nordic country. Norway has the fourth largest population in the Nordic countries. Norway also includes the Svalbard and other overseas territories. The fjords and mountains are key elements in the Norwegian landscape. The country's capital and largest city is Oslo. According to the Human Development Index, Norway has the highest standard of living in the world. The country's wealth is based on energy resources: oil, natural gas and hydropower. Norway is also a world leader in fishing and fish farming. The country speaks Norwegian, which is written in two different literary languages ​​(book Norwegian and Neo-Norwegian), and three Sámi languages ​​(Northern Sámi, Southern Sámi and Luleå Sámi). Norway is a thriving winter sports country that has hosted two Olympics. Norway is a member of NATO but has opted out of the European Union. However, as an EFTA member, it is involved in the EEA.


Norway is bordered on the west by the Norwegian Sea, on the south by the Strait of Skagerrak and on the north by the Barents Sea. The capital of Norway is Oslo, and the other major cities are Bergen, Trondheim, Stavanger, Kristiansand, Fredrikstad and Tromsø. Norway covers an area of ​​323,802 square kilometers. The country is mostly mountainous. There are mainly more flat areas only in the south-east of the country east of the Oslo Fjord. Further north on the Norwegian-Swedish border is the Scandinavian fold mountains. The highest mountain in Norway is Galdhøpiggen, located in the Jotunheimen Mountains. It is 2,469 meters high and at the same time the highest mountain in Northern Europe. The Norwegian coast is very winding and has a large number of long and narrow fjords. The length of the coastline, including the fjords and islands, is 83,000 kilometers, of which the islands account for about 58,000 kilometers. The longest and deepest fjord in Norway is Sognev Fjord. It is 200 kilometers long. Norway is rich in lakes and rivers. The largest lake is Mjøsa and the largest rivers are Glomma, Gudbrandsdalslågen or Lågen and Teno. Norway includes the Svalbard archipelago and Jan Mayen in the Arctic Ocean and the Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic. In addition, Norway considers itself to belong to a sector in Antarctica called the Land of Queen Maud and the island of St. Peter I in Antarctica.


The Norwegian coast has a temperate maritime climate. The moving low pressures of the mid-latitudes from the Atlantic bring rain and strong winds. Precipitation in the south is higher than in the north. The inland mountains have an arctic climate, with snow in winter, frost and strong winds. The Oslo region is the only lowland area in the country and is colder in winter but warmer and drier in summer than on the coast.


37% of mainland Norway is covered by forest. More than half of this, 23 percent of the land, is commercial forest. It is used for sawn timber and for the needs of the pulp and paper industry. The forest biomass grows, so it acts as a carbon sink. The main tree species is spruce. Birch birch grows on the coast, but spruce and hardwood have also been planted there since the 1950s. The national flower of Norway is the heather (Calluna vulgaris). The list of endangered species in Norway in 2006 includes 31 mammals, 78 birds, 44 fish and five reptiles and amphibians. There are a total of 1,988 species of endangered species (including plants, insects and fungi). The greatest danger is wolf and fox. Various nature reserves cover almost 15 per cent of mainland Norway and an even larger part of Svalbard.


Early history

Settling in Norway al

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