Opera (Latin opera, plural of the word opus ‘work, work’) is a performing arts form that combines music and play. The opera often has a full-length symphony orchestra. However, the main characters are singers. The lyrics of an opera, called a libretto, are usually sung in two singing styles during the opera. The recitative is an eloquent song that carries the plot forward. Songs between recitatives are called arias. In addition, operas often include duets, tertettos performed by three singers, and quartets of four singers, choral scenes, and overture, interlude, and final performances by the orchestra.
The lyrics of the opera are written by the libretto. Sometimes the libretto is written by the opera composer himself. The librettist decides what happens in each scene and writes the words sung and spoken by the singers. The story of a libretto sometimes comes from a well-known source such as a fairy tale, myth, Bible, novel, play, or biography. In many opera houses, the spectator can read the libretto during the performance in their own language, for example on a screen above the stage or on the back of the seat. He also determines the size of the orchestra, which instruments and sound fields will be used in the performance, and how many singers will participate in the performance. The director of the Opera House will design the repertoire for each performance season. He selects the operas to be performed and reserves the singers for them. The singers are placed in roles according to their sound field. The sound fields of opera singers are bass, baritone, tenor and countertenor for men, and contra-alto, alto, mezzo-soprano and soprano for women. Operas are now usually performed in the original language, so singers have to sing in several different languages. Some operas have a choir, and some feature Ballet Dancers. There are often statisticians on stage who do not speak or sing. The conductor, "Maestro," conducts the orchestra in the performance and decides, for example, the tempo and intensity of the music. He shows singers and musicians when it’s their turn to be in the voice. The orchestra sits in an orchestra between the stage and the audience. In front of the stage is a whisperer's booth hidden from the audience, from which she reminds the singer of the lyrics. The stage director is responsible for what happens on stage and she directs the singers' movements. The set designer designs the Scenery and what the performance will look like. She works in particular with the director and lighting designer who designs the lighting for the show. The costume designer makes the performers' costumes, the make-up artist makes the make-up, and the wig master makes wigs that are very widely used in the opera. In addition, various stage workers will take part in the performance, for example, moving sets and handling effects.
History of the opera
The roots of the opera go back to the popular art forms that combined music and drama during the Renaissance, pastoral and madrimal drama and, above all, intermedio, which were short performances performed between ordinary speech dramas. Two significant musical inventions made at the dawn of the Baroque made the birth of opera possible. The abandonment of church tones and the stabilization of the major-minor tonality made it possible to modulate and thus create contrasts and tensions in the music. The differences between the composers were made particularly impressive by the fact that the tuning system was not smooth. Transition from the polyphony of Renaissance music to the bar