The Arctic Ocean is a large sea area around the Arctic in the Arctic. It can be seen as an extension of the Atlantic, to which it is connected by the Norwegian Sea. The Bering Strait connects it to the Pacific Ocean. The Arctic Ocean covers an area of about 14 million square kilometers. The sea is mostly frozen all year round. As a result of global warming, the area of permanent ice cover will shrink and by 2040 the ice cover may disappear completely by the summer.
The Arctic Ocean was born about 18 million years ago, when there was an oxygen deprivation in its deep parts for about 700,000 years.
The present Arctic Ocean was formerly a lake until the Atlantic expanded and broke the isthmus connecting Greenland and the Svalbard. A strait formed between Greenland and the Svalbard, connecting the Arctic Ocean and the Atlantic, transforming the Arctic Ocean into an inland sea. The heavier and saltier water of the Atlantic was allowed to flow through the strait into the Arctic Ocean, forming a lighter layer of brackish water on its surface and a heavy layer of deep water below it. While the Arctic Ocean was still a lake, the water mixed to the bottom during the spring and autumn cycle, after becoming the sea only the upper brackish water layer and the deep waters changed only from the North Atlantic side. The resulting strait was narrow and only limited Atlantic water flowed along its bottom into the Arctic Ocean. As a result, the turnover of deep waters weakened and an oxygen deficit formed, which today afflicts the deepest layers of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. The history of the Arctic Ocean has been determined by the age of oxygen-free bottom sediments. It has even been concluded that during the ice ages the sea would have been at least largely completely freshwater.
On the Asian side, the Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisei and Lena descend into the sea, and on the North American side, Mackenzie, Back and Coppermine. In addition, water enters the sea from the Bering Strait, from the Atlantic brought by the Gulf Stream, and from melting glaciers.
Fauna and natural resources
The fauna of the Arctic Ocean consists mainly of fish and marine mammals. Herring, cod and flounder in the warmer part of the sea have reached commercial exploitation. In addition, seals and many species of whales are found, as well as polar bears. Seals and whales almost became extinct in the 20th century until fishing quotas were set for them. Tin is mined off the coast of eastern Siberia and oil and natural gas are pumped off the coasts of Canada and Alaska. In addition, coal is mined in Svalbard.
The Lomonosov ridge divides the Arctic Ocean into two main basins: the Americas Basin and the Eurasian Basin.
The Arctic Ocean and associated bays are:
The Barents Sea, located between Novaya Zemlya and the Kola Peninsula. Named after its discoverer Willem Barents, a Dutch navigator.
The White Sea, a bay extending south and west of the Barents Sea to the east and south of the Kola Peninsula.
The Karan Sea (Karskoye More), located between Novaya Zemlya and the Taimyr Peninsula.
The Laptev Sea, located between the Taimyr Peninsula, the Severnaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands. The adjacent sea areas are the Caran Sea and the East Siberian Sea
The Eastern Siberian Sea, bounded on the west by the islands of New Siberia and on the east by the island of Wrangel. Adjacent sea areas are the Laptev Sea in the west and the Chukchi Sea in the east
Chukchi Sea, located between Wrangel Island and the Beaufort Sea and thus north of the Bering Strait. The adjacent sea areas are the East Siberian Sea to the west and the Beaufort Sea to the east
Bay of Baffin
Greenland Sea, in the area between Greenland, Iceland and the Svalbard.
The main sea current is the Transpolar Current, which is the main carrier of cooled seawater to the North Atlantic. Transpolar flow j