Saturn (symbol:) is the sixth planet out of the Sun. It is a giant planet (i.e., a Jovian planet) and the second largest planet in our solar system. It is named after the Roman god Saturn.
Saturn is clearly flattened at its poles. Its diameter, measured from the equator, is almost 10% larger than that measured from the pole (120,536 km and 108,728 km). This is due to the rapid rotation of the planet as well as its internal structure. Saturn is also the densest of the planets in our solar system: it has an average density of only 0.69 g / cm³, less than water.
The interior of Saturn is like Jupiter: in the middle is a silicate core surrounded by a layer of metallic liquid hydrogen. In addition, there are signs of various ice crystals in the interior. The core of Saturn is very hot, 12,000 Kelvin, and it radiates more heat into space than it receives from the Sun.
The length of Saturn's day is about 11 hours, its year is 29.5 Earth years. Saturn's atmosphere is made up of hydrogen, helium and methane.
The internal structure of Saturn
The internal structure of Saturn is likely to resemble the structure of Jupiter. Most of Saturn is made up of liquid hydrogen and helium, with a solid rocky and iron core in the middle. The outermost are the clouds visible at the top of the atmosphere visible to us. The pressure, temperature, and density in the center of Saturn are not quite as great as in Jupiter. Saturn's layer of liquid molecular hydrogen is about twice as thick as that of Jupiter and extends to a depth of 30,000 kilometers. Hydrogen becomes metallic quite close to the nucleus, unlike in Jupiter. The metallic hydrogen layer is 14,000 kilometers thick. The pressure at the bottom of the atmosphere is about 100,000 bar, and at the limit of liquid molecular hydrogen 1,000,000 bar approximately halfway through the radius of Saturn. According to some estimates, Saturn would have an 8,000-kilometer-thick layer of ice and an 8,000-kilometer-thick layer of rock at its core. At the core, the temperature may rise to about 12,000 kelvins. Saturn seems to be missing helium, which is believed to have fallen toward the center of the planet.
Hydrogen, helium, and some methane and ammonia have been found in the atmosphere. The equator has winds of up to 500 m / s. A large white spot appears briefly in the rhythm of Saturn's orbit about every 30 years. The storm of 1933 is the most famous. The images taken by the spacecraft Cassini show a blue cloud like the clouds of Uranus in the northern hemisphere of Saturn. Saturn has a warm pole vortex that is the only one known in the solar system, on other planets it is cold. The North Pole shows a slightly hexagonal stream, a standing wave with a hurricane-like storm around the North Pole in the middle. It shows a clear eye to the storm, high pressure. Hexagonal shapes have been produced in laboratories in computer modeling.
Saturn's atmosphere is at its coldest at 0.07 bar, about 94 Kelvin, or −179 ° C. The chemistry of Saturn's atmosphere is similar to that of Jupiter, but because the planet's gravity is lower, the upper nebula is thicker and covers the lower colorful clouds. The novelty is also due to the colder temperature than Jupiter's atmosphere. The thickness of the fog is tens of kilometers. The mist reflects half of the sunlight.
The nebula layer begins at a tropopause of 0.1 atmospheric pressure. The upper limit of the ammonia clouds is 50 kilometers below this, the lower limit of the ammonium hydrogen sulfide clouds is 170 kilometers below the tropopause, and there are water ice clouds about 230 kilometers deeper. Equivalent to the pressure of the Earth's atmosphere