May 28, 2022

Pigs (Suidae) are a tribe of the ungulates. Pigs live in the wild only in Europe, Asia and Africa. There are very many pig-like bakers in the Americas. Pigs developed during the oligosaccharium in Asia about 40 million years ago. Today, 15 different species of surviving pigs are known, most of which belong to the genus of pigs (Sus). The earliest signs of domesticated pigs are 9,000 years ago (7,000 BC) from northern Iraq, Mesopotamia, and Turkish Anatolia. Today, domestic pigs are one of the most important meat-producing animals.

Size and appearance

Pigs are medium-sized, omnivorous ungulates. They differ in appearance from other ungulates in that their bodies are stocky, their necks are short and their legs are small compared to the rest of their bodies. Pigs have an elongated head ending in a circular snout and strong canines, often protruding from the mouth. Pigs range in length from one meter to two meters, with the exception of a dwarf pig, which is no more than 70 centimeters taller than an adult. Pigs have a stocky body and rather slender, four-toed legs. The middle toes support body weight, the side toes hit the ground only if the ground is submersible. The head is large and wedge-shaped, the muzzle ending in a moving snout. At its tip is a hairless cartilage plate into which the nostrils open. The eyes are small and the ears are pointed. The structure of the brain is highly developed. The skin is covered with stiff and sparse bristles. Some species have neck hair. The dentition is well developed and tells of omnipotence. Hind teeth with bumps, front with sharp edges. Canines have evolved into upwardly curving, ever-growing incisors. The stomach is one-piece or slightly bisected. Distribution and habitat Pigs are found over a wide area in Europe, Asia and Africa. The northern boundary of the distribution runs through the southern part of the coniferous forest zone. Along with man, they have also spread to Australia and the Americas. Pigs usually live in shrubs and woodlands, and preferably in humid terrain, but this varies greatly from species to species.


Pigs are very sociable animals and usually move in groups. They prefer to move in the twilight and retreat for days into the cavities, between the rhizomes, the thickets and the pits they dig. Pigs are known for their tendency to wrinkle, the primary cause of which is the regulation of body temperature, as pigs do not sweat. They also get rid of outsiders at the same time. The pigs bark at the ground and eat everything their good sense of smell and the delicate sense of the patient's plate are valid for. All kinds of plants are edible, such as roots, fresh grass, leaves, fruits and mushrooms. Animal nutrition is also an important part of the diet. Pigs eat a lot of insects, larvae, snails, worms, frogs, lizards, chicks and eggs, small rodents, fish and carcasses. Temperate zone pig species have fixed mating seasons, but tropical species can reproduce year-round. Sometimes, however, they are determined by rainy and dry seasons. The gestation period is about 4 to 5 months, after which the offspring are born from one piglet to about 15 piglets, depending on the species.


Olendorf, Donna (eds.): Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals IV (Volume 125). Thomson, 2004. ISBN 0-7876-5791-3.


Elsewhere on this topic Suidae. Pigs in the Encyclopedia of Life online encyclopedia. Videos and pictures of pigs.