Siberia (Russian: Siberia, Siberia) is a large geographical area located mainly in Russia, covering almost all of northern Asia. In different contexts and at different times, the delimitation of Siberia has been done in different ways. In present-day Russia, however, Siberia includes the Asian parts of the state, with the exception of the easternmost parts of Russia, the Russian Far East (in orange on the map). From a historical point of view, the latter zone, which covers the Pacific coastal areas, has also been included in Siberia. In addition, it includes the northern part of Kazakhstan's Alava (not marked on the map). To the west, Siberia is bordered by the Ural Mountains, to the north by the Arctic Ocean, and to the south by the highlands of central Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China. As an administrative region, the Siberian Federal District is narrower than geographical Siberia and comprises only its central part, excluding the Republic of Sawmill and the areas near the Ural Mountains.
Siberia covers an area of 9,653,000 square kilometers, making it slightly larger than the United States, including Alaska. The entire Asian region of Russia covers an area of about 13.1 million square kilometers. Siberia is divided into two economic areas, Western Siberia and Eastern Siberia. Geographically, it is divided into three areas:
The Dutch Siberian West Siberia is an extremely flat plateau of about three million square kilometers, the surface of which only rises to more than 50 meters in Novosibirsk, almost 2,000 kilometers from the coast. It is the largest Netherlands in the world after the Amazon Basin. It is located between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisei and is crossed by Ob and its tributaries. In some places, the swamps cover up to 80% of the area, and the world's largest swamp, Vasjugan, with an area of 53,000 square kilometers, is located between the two major rivers, the Yenisei and the Lena. It is crossed by the Aen-Tunguska and Kivinen-Tunguska tributaries of the Yenisei. In the south it rises to Sajanvori and in the north it descends to the foot of the Taimyr Peninsula to rise again in some places to a height of more than a kilometer before the Arctic Ocean. The highest peak in the plateau reaches 1,701 meters in the Putorana Mountains. The area has mainly ridges and hills, but also marshy plateaus. The land is in permafrost over large areas. The summers are short and warm, the winters long and very cold. The highest peak is Beluha in the Alta (4,506 m). Surrounded by mountains, Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and the seventh largest in area. It is estimated to contain one-fifth of the earth's fresh water.
The inland climate of Siberia is continental and is known for its very harsh winters. Despite the warm summers, the country remains in permafrost, especially in the highlands of Central Siberia. On the Arctic coast, winters are not as cold, but summers are correspondingly very cool. The climate has hampered the increase in human activity and population growth in the region.
The climate in Siberia is very varied.
In the northeastern part of Siberia, winters are the coldest in the entire northern hemisphere, meaning the cold hub of the northern hemisphere. There is even an Arctic climate. The average annual temperature in the small town of Verkhoyansk is −15.4 ° C; in January the average temperature is −47.8 ° C, but in July it rises to +15.2 ° C. A cold record of −71.2 ° C has been recorded in the village of Oimjakoni in the valley between the Verkhoyansk Mountains and the Czechoslovak Mountains. The annual temperature variation in the region is the largest in the world. The average annual temperature on the Arctic Ocean coast in Tiks is −13.1 ° C, in January −31.3 ° C and