Article

December 8, 2021

The Republic of Suriname (formerly Suriname) is a state in South America. Its neighbors are Guyana to the west, Brazil to the south, and French Guiana to the east. To the north of the country is the Atlantic Ocean. The country covers an area of ​​about 160,000 square kilometers and has a population of 598,000. It is the smallest of the most independent states in continental South America in terms of both area and population. More than half of the population is of Asian descent, mostly Indians and Javanese. The official language is colonial Dutch, but the most commonly spoken local Creole is Sranantongo. The name of the state comes from the tribe of surinen.

Geography

Suriname is the smallest independent state in the southern part of the American continent. To the north is the Atlantic Ocean, bordering French Guiana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Guyana to the west. Suriname has a narrow coastal zone formed by sands of sand and mud carried by sea currents from the mouth of the Amazon River. Behind it is a coastal plateau of the same material with many bogs and coastal sandy slopes. Going south, the terrain rises and after the plains, the hilly area of ​​Zanderij begins. The highest point in the Wilhelminagebergten mountains is Julianatop (1,230 meters above sea level). The 480 km long Suriname River flows through the country. Other significant rivers are the Corantijn, the Coppename and the Marowijne. In the northeastern part of the country is the Brokopondo Reservoir, which was built with the help of the dam built in the Brokopondo project in 1964. The dam was built to generate electricity for bauxite mines (75% of electricity production) and for national consumption. It produces about half of the country's energy needs. Suriname is located near the equator and has a tropical climate with no large temperature fluctuations. In the lowland area around Paramaribo, the highest daytime temperature is 29-33 degrees and the nighttime is 22-23 degrees. There are four seasons on the coast. From early December to early February there is a small rainy season, from early February to late February a small dry season, from late February to mid-August the actual rainy season and from mid-August to early December the actual rainy season.The majority of the population lives in the northern, cultivated area. The southern part is a sparsely populated tropical rainforest. 93% of the country's land area is covered by forests. Suriname has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the historic center of Paramaribo and the Central Suriname Nature Reserve. The nature reserve is home to a jaguar, a giant belt, a giant otter, a tapir, lazy and eight different species of monkeys.

History

Early history

Stone Age weapons have been found in the Sipaliwin district of Suriname, suggesting that the area was inhabited by hunter-gatherer peoples about 10,000 years ago. Residents of the coastal and Caribbean islands traded and moved from one area to another. About a thousand years ago, the Arawak Indians of the rainforests of the Amazon settled in Suriname. They were followed by the Caribbean from the same direction. The Surinis gave way to the Arawak and the Caribbean, and their culture disappeared around the 15th century.

Entry of Europeans and colonial time

The Spaniards settled in Guyana from 1593, the Dutch in 1616 and the British in 1630. The Arawaks and the Caribbean attacked the Europeans, but due to more powerful weapons and new infectious diseases in Europe, the Indian settlement waned off the coast. However, the natives remained deeper into the rainforest, where Europeans moved only occasionally in search of game, gold, and drinking water. The first European settlement in Surinamen was founded in 1651 by British plantation owners. In the Breda Peace Treaty, which ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Netherlands and England agreed in 1667 that England

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