Czech Republic


November 30, 2021

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), or Czech Republic (sometimes also the Czech Republic), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Its neighbors are Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland. The Czech Republic is made up of Slavs, the vast majority of the Czech Republic's 10.6 million inhabitants. The country's capital is Prague on the Vltava River. Consisting of historic Bohemia, Moravia, and southeastern Silesia, the Czech Republic has historically been part of the Habsburg Empire and, in the 20th century, part of Czechoslovakia. Today, the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union and its passport-free Schengen area, as well as NATO.


The geography of the Czech Republic is varied. Western Bohemia forms a lowland surrounded by low mountains such as the Sudetenland. The Elbe (Czech: Labe) and its tributary Vltava carry water out of the area. At the source of the Elbe in the Sudetenland, Krkonoše is located 1,602 meters high Sněžka, the highest point in the Czech Republic. Moravia, the eastern part of the Czech Republic, is hilly, and from there the waters flow mostly through the Morava River, but the source of the Oder River is also in Moravia. The climate is mild, with a typical Central European intermediate climate, between the more maritime climates of Western Europe and Russia. Summers are quite warm, but heavy heat is rare. Czech nature is typical of Central Europe. Natural conditions are influenced by the high mountains and continental location, and most of the country’s forests are coniferous. The typical tree species in the original Czech forest, which now accounts for about a third of the country's forests, are oaks, spruces and pines. Many forests have been converted to cultivated spruce forests. Today, spruce accounts for 63% of the volume and pine for 15%. The most common wildlife include the hare, the otter and the woodpecker. Pheasants, pike, wild boar, deer, ducks and geese can be seen in the woods and fields. Eagles and storks are also sometimes found. To some extent, there are some wolves and bears in the north.

Largest cities

The seven largest cities in the Czech Republic at the end of 2015 were: Prague (1,267,449 inhabitants) is the capital of the Czech Republic. Brno (377,028 inhabitants) is an old town in the southeastern part of the country. Ostrava (292,681 inhabitants) is the center of the heavy metal industry in the eastern part of the country. Pilsen (169,858 inhabitants), which gave its name to pilsner beer, is located in the western part of the country. Liberec (103,288 inhabitants) is a winter sports center in the north of the country. Olomouc (100,154 inhabitants) is the traditional capital of Moravia in the eastern part of the country. České Budějovice (93 513 inhabitants) is a town known for its beer in the southern part of the country.


The current Czech Republic consists of three historical regions: Bohemia, Moravia and the south-east of Silesia. The first inhabitants of the area in the 5th century BC. a Celtic tribe called boii, according to which Bohemia (Bohemia) got its name. The Celts were followed by the Germans, and the Slavs who arrived in the area around the 4th century. The peaceful life of the Slavs was interrupted when the Avars invaded the area in the 5th century. To some extent, the Czech tribes in the area helped Charles the Great expel the Avars and got under his protection. The vassal state of quantities evolved into a kingdom called the Great Moravia at its broadest. Its king called Cyril and Methodius to spread the Byzantine faith to counter the growing influence of the Germans. After the death of Methodius, however, Märri came under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, and the Latin alphabet was used instead of Cyrillic writing. Greater Moravia was overthrown by Hungarians in 907. To improve their position, the Bohemian tribes recognized the Germanic (later German) kings as their lords. Duke Wenceslaus St. (921-929) converted to the Roman Catholic faith and acknowledged the supremacy of Emperor Henry I and in return took control of his own territories. Vratislav II (1085) and Vla.

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