Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Chukchi Autonomous County, Chukchi, or Tšuktšimaa (Rus. Чукотка, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Чукотский автономный округ, Tšukotski avtonomnyi okrug, Chukchi Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Tšukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) is attributable to Russia a wide Autonomous County in Asia the northeast corner of the Russian Far East.
The Chukchi Autonomous District is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean in the Eastern Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea, on the west by the Sahara, on the south by the Magadan region and the Kamchatka District, on the southeast by the Bering Sea and its Gulf of Anadyr and east by the Bering Strait. The county is located in the easternmost part of Asia, Dežnjovinniemi.
The county has a large area (about 721,500 km²). It covers 4.2% of the total area of Russia and is more than twice the size of Finland. The area comprises the Chukchi Peninsula and its mainland, as well as the Wrangel Island, separated from the mainland by the Long Strait. Wrangel Island is protected and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The larger of the Diomedes Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait, Ratmanov Island, belongs to Chukotka, but the smaller island, four kilometers away, is part of the United States.
Terrain and water bodies
The central part of Chukotka, around Anadyr and its tributaries, is the lowlands. The other parts are mainly mountainous tundra. The southeastern part of the county is dominated by the Korjakki plateau and the Chukchi plateau (Anadyr Mountains) rising to the north at its highest point in 1843 meters. In addition, in the western part of the region is the Kolym Mountains, the highest point in the Chukotka region is 1,853 meters.
There are many rivers flowing in the county. The most significant of these is Anadyr (1,145 km) flowing into the Bering Sea with its tributaries in the central part of the country. In the western part of the area, the eastern tributaries of the Kolyman on the Sawmill side flow: Omolon, Oloi and Bolshoi. In addition, there are several smaller rivers in the southeast and north of the area.
Flora and climate
Chukchi is mainly tundra. Only the Anadyr Valley and the southwestern part of the region have coniferous forest growing from larch and sembred pine.
It rains quite a bit in the area. The annual rainfall is less than 125 mm in the northern and northeastern parts and 125–250 mm in the southern part.
The most significant nature reserves are the Wrangel Island Nature Park and the Lebedinini Nature Reserve (3,900 km²). The Wrangel Island Nature Park, established in 1976, covers a total area of 56,616 square kilometers with protected areas, including the Herald (Геральд, named after the HMS Herald in 1849) and the surrounding 12-mile sea area.
In the Soviet Union, Chukotka was part of the Magadan region, but Chukotka declared his secession in 1991. Russia approved this secession in 1993.
According to the 2010 census, the population of Chukotka was 50,526 (2010). The population of the county has fallen sharply since the break-up of the Soviet Union, when migration has become freer.
The table below shows the population development of Chukotka and some of its largest agglomerations according to the 1959–2010 censuses. The notation “ktt” used in the table means an urban type agglomeration.
In 2002, 51.9% of the population were Russians, 9.2% Ukrainians, 23.5% Chukchi, 2.85% Eskimos, 2.6% Evens, and 1.77% Chuvants.
The decrease in the population of the county has also been reflected in the distribution of nationalities, as those who emigrated have been mainly Slavic. As late as 1989, 66.1% of the population were Russians, 16.8% Ukrainians and northern indigenous peoples 9