Turin (Turin in the local Piedmontese language) is an industrial and university city in northwestern Italy. It is the capital of the Piedmont region and the metropolitan capital of Turin. Turin is located along the River Po, close to the Alps. The city of Turin has a population of about 900,000, but the metropolitan area of Turin has a total population of about 1.5 million.
Turin is known as the location of the administration of the Fiat car plant and the main production facilities. The former Lingotto industrial building, once the world's largest car factory, now serves as a cultural center and hotel, among other things. The city is also known for its Baroque architecture.
Around the 400s BC. the Taurian tribe settled in the region had the city of Taurasia on the site of present-day Turin, which was destroyed by Hannibal in 218 BC. The site of the military camp's main street (decumanus) is still found in the town plan of Turin, now called Via Garibaldi.
The Langobards conquered the region in 568 and ruled it as a principality until the Franks ousted them in 773 and held the territory until 888. After that, power changed several times. The French Savoy noble family gained control of the region in the 13th century and ruled it most of the time until the unification of Italy in 1861. The University of Turin was founded in 1404.
With the unification of Italy in 1861, King Eittuele II of Sardinia (Viktor Emanuel II), a member of the Savoy family, became the first king of Italy. Turin was the first capital of a united Italy from 1861 to 1865.
The Lingotto car factory, which manufactured fiats, began operations in 1923 and was once the largest car factory in the world. During Benito Mussolini’s fascist rule, Turin was significantly employed in the automotive industry and the city produced military vehicles.
During World War II, Turin was strategically bombed and badly damaged. The city was quickly rebuilt after the war, and the city’s population continued to grow, largely thanks to the automotive industry. Turin became a city of millions in the 1960s, but the car industry experienced a crisis at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s and the city’s population began to decline. At the turn of the millennium, the city had about 900,000 inhabitants.
Geography and climate
Turin is located in the northwestern part of Italy. The city is bordered on the west and north by the Alps and on the east by the mountain range of Monferrato. Turin is located at the confluence of the rivers Po and Dora Riparia.
Winters are mild and dry and summers are quite hot. The wettest is in spring and autumn. Because the city is located on the east side of the Alps, it rains less than on the west side of the mountains due to the föhn phenomenon. In winter and autumn, heavy fog is common, but not right in the city center, as the center is located on the edge of the valley. The highest temperature measured in Turin was 37.1 ° C and the lowest −21.8 ° C.
The center of Turin represents Baroque architecture and was built mainly during the Kingdom of Sardinia. The sidewalks on the main streets of the city center are mostly covered. The main shopping street in the center is Via Roma, bordered by new old buildings built in the 1930s. Via Roma starts at the main train station, with Piazza San Carlo along the street and Piazza Castello at the north end. In the center of Piazza Castello is the Palazzo Madama and on the edge is the Royal Palace and the Royal Arms Collection. Right next to the palace is Turin Cathedral, whose royal chapel houses the Turin Shroud.
The eastern center of Turin is home to the University of Turin and the Mole Antonelliana, whose skyline is one of the city’s most famous symbols. The tower houses the National Film Museum. You can view the city from the observation deck. East of downtown