Tosca is an opera composed by Giacomo Puccini that dates back to 1800 Rome. At the premiere of the opera in 1900, Toscaa was performed by Hariclea Darclée, Cavaradossia by Emilio De Marchi and Scarpia by Eugenio Giraldoni. The performance was directed by Leopole Mugnone. Tosca is one of the most popular works in all of opera literature.
The duration of Act I is 45 minutes, that of Action II is 40 minutes and that of Act III is 25 minutes, for a total of about two hours.
Victorien Sardoun La Tosca
The French author Victorien Sardou (1831–1908) was one of the most popular playwrights of his time. The premiere of the five-act La Tosca he wrote was on November 24, 1887 at the Porte Saint-Martin Theater.source? The success of the play was due to the fact that it was made to order for Sarah Bernhardt. In La Tosca, Sardou mixes real history and fiction. The historical background of the opera relates to Napoleon's second Italian expedition, the alliance against Napoleon, the division of Italy into small states, and the Battle of Marengo on June 14, 1800.
From play to opera
At first, Sardou wasn't very enthusiastic about making his play an opera. Source? In 1894, opera composer Alberto Franchetti (1860–1942) and librettist Luigi Illica met Victorien Sardou in Paris. Giuseppe Verdi was also interested, but due to his advanced age he left the topic. Source? Sardou sold the opera rights to Franchett.
Puccini had seen the play two years (1890) after its premiere and became interested in the subject. Giulio Ricordi was convinced that Tosca would be more successful in Puccini's hands than Franchett's. After a variety of persuasion, pressure, and misinformation, Ricordi and his assistants managed to convince Franchett that Tosca, with its murders and torture, would be inappropriate for an opera. Finally, Victorien Sardou was persuaded to sell the opera rights to Puccini. As an example, Puccini played music from Tuscany on the piano. (Actually, Puccini played excerpts from Manon Lescaut and La Bohème.)
Sardou has marked the date of the play as June 17, 1800. Puccini, on the other hand, marked the date in the libretto only for June 1800. The venues in Tuscany are buildings that are really in Rome. Tosca takes place in one day.
The first show in Sardou’s La Tosca is set in the church of Sant ’Andrea al Quirinale. Puccini moves it to Sant 'Andrea della Valle and the show takes place at noon. The second screening will take place in the evening at Palazzo Farnese, which now serves as the French Embassy. Sardou placed the Scarpia room on the third floor and the music for Queen Maria Carolina’s party comes in through the window. The Sardou villa in Cavaradoss is quite close to the Caracalla spa. The third screening will take place at 4 am in Castel Sant’Angelo, a monument to Emperor Hadrian.
The political climate was critical. The police chief came to the changing room of conductor Leopoldo Mugnone to say that Queen Margherita and members of the government and senators were present at the premiere and that a political bombing would be possible. If that were to happen, the orchestra would have to start the national anthem. The performance began loudly. The audience was restless. The late entrants caused such strong protests that Mugnone had to restart the show. Several critics criticized the plot and compared it to a play. For the most part, however, the opera was accepted. The opera was quickly accepted by the audience. The show received twenty replays and soon it spread all over Italy and then around the world.
Various sources mention that the work of composition began either at the end of the love record for the first act of Mia gelosa or Te Deum. Although the name of the opera is Tosca, it begins with a Scarpian theme. The various themes, their reminders, and metamorphoses in Tuscany are calculated to be y