Due to the cold, the tundra is a zone of woodless and stunted vegetation. It grows mainly on moss, lichen, grass, flowers, shrubs and other low vegetation. Low temperatures and short summers usually prevent tree growth. Potential trees grow sparsely or stunted. Often, a tundra is defined as an area colder than the tree boundary where the average July temperature is below 10 ° C. Tundra is found in northern Canada and Siberia, the Svalbard and Greenland, among others. The tundra has year-round permafrost. The low level of evaporation causes extensive swamping, although it usually rains little in the tundra.
The Tundra has a long, cold and stormy winter and a short, very cool summer. The tundra usually has windy climatic conditions, and the trees there do not slow down the wind speed. Permafrost modifies the soil by, among other things, raising rocks to the surface. Examples of Tundra animals include musk ox, fox, deer, mosquitoes and onion. Due to the harsh climate of the tundra, human settlement there is very sparse.
Tundra has varied vegetation. The very cold northern part of the tundra is called the polar desert. The area south of the tree line warmer than the tundra is often referred to in the Arctic as a subarctic area.
The name Tundra comes through the Russian word for Sámi fell (for example, duottar in Northern Sámi and tūndar in Kiltina Sámi). From Russia, the word tundra has spread in its current meaning both to Finnish and to many languages around the world.
Arctic tundra boundary and area
The Arctic tundra boundary is the arctic forest boundary north of the coniferous forest zone, to the north of which the forest does not grow due to cold. In many cases, a forest with a tree cover of less than 30 percent and a tree and shrub height limit of 2 meters are considered a forest. The forest limit is approximately the same as the 10 ° C average temperature limit in July. Of course, trees may grow at least individually, even at the July 8 ° C isotherm. Usually the 10 degree isotherm and the forest boundary go pretty well together. Most of the forest grows north of the July 10 isotherm in the easternmost part of Siberia on the Pacific coast and also in the Atlantic, where shallow forest also grows in Greenland.
It is also proposed as a tree boundary a region where the growing season is less than 60 days. In some calculations, the tree limit is calculated based on the average temperature of the four summer months. The calculation can also be based on the heat sum of an efficient growing season, for example, the northern limit of pine in northern Finnish Lapland is approximately the same as 600 degree days. Other limits are the length of the uncontrolled season, the lowest temperature in winter. The moisture side is influenced by the rainfall, sea level and mainland of the growing season.
The tundra zone is a maximum of 300 km wide in Siberia. The coniferous forest changes to a zone with tundra islands in the coniferous forest, and to a tundra with coniferous forest islands, and finally to the tundra in a rather narrow zone of about 30 to 150 km wide called the forest tundra. This is also called the boundary between tundra and taiga. In this border zone, the land can be completely covered with shrubs and trees here and there. The altitude zone also affects the vegetation. Siberia has tundra mountains and taiga lowlands.
Finland The nearest tundra areas are on the northern coast of the Kola Peninsula. In Fennoscandia, it is not considered to be a real tundra, although in Lapland there are permafrost in the embankments and in the legal parts of the high fells. In the continental climate, permafrost can occur far south of the forest border. The Arctic tundra is located in the areas bordering the Arctic Ocean between the forest boundary and the polar deserts of the polar regions at latitudes 60–75. There are about 25 million square kilometers of Arctic tundra.
At sea, the tundra boundary roughly corresponds to the driving ice widest distribution and the polar desert area that is covered in ice for most of the year. In Canada and the Brooks Mountains in Alaska