October 20, 2021

Russia (Russian Росси́я, Rossija), officially called the Russian Federation (Russian Росси́йская Федера́ция, Rossijskaya Federatsija listen (help)), is a federation located in Eastern Europe and North Asia. The country's capital is Moscow on the European side. The current Russian Federation was established in the early 1990s when the Soviet Union disintegrated. According to the 1993 Constitution, the Russian Federation is a semi-presidential republic. It is a federal state consisting of 83 federal entities. Russia's neighbors are Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. In addition, there are few sea voyages to Japan, South Korea, and Alaska in the United States. Russia is the largest country in the world with an area of ​​about 17 million square kilometers and covers more than one-eighth of the world's land area. In 2011, it was the ninth most populous country in the world with about 139 million inhabitants. Russia covers most of North Asia and about 40 percent of Europe and its territory is divided into nine time zones. There are numerous different types of vegetation and land in the country. Russia has the world's largest mineral and energy resources: gas reserves are the world's largest, coal reserves the second largest and oil reserves the eighth largest. The country has the largest forest resources in the world and its lakes contain about a quarter of the world's molten fresh water. The state called Kiev Russia emerged in the 8th century and embraced Christianity in 988. Kiev Russia was followed by the Principality of Moscow. In the 18th century, a much larger Russian Empire was established, extending from Poland to the Pacific Ocean and beyond to Alaska. Russia became a global power in the days of the empire. The country underwent a revolution during the First World War, after which the Soviet Union was founded: the world’s largest socialist state. The current Russian Federation became independent from the Soviet Union when it disintegrated in 1991. Russia is a successor state to the Soviet Union. Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and a leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It is one of five countries officially recognized as a nuclear-weapon state and, together with the United States, has the largest stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the world.



Along the geodetic line, the two points furthest apart in Russia are about 8,000 kilometers apart. The westernmost point of these is located on a peninsula on the Polish border that separates the Gulf of Gdańsk from the Veikselinhaff; the easternmost point is located on the Kuril Islands, a few kilometers from Hokkaido, Japan. Staying in the same latitude, Russia has a maximum latitude of 6,600 kilometers. In this case, the westernmost point is the same peninsula on the Polish border and the easternmost on the islands of Diomede near Alaska. The Russian Federation spreads over nine time zones. Russia has the largest forest resources in the world, making it known as the “Lungs of Europe”. Only the Amazon rainforests sequester them more carbon dioxide, so Russian forests become a lot of oxygen to the whole world in addition to Europe. Because of Russia’s connection to three oceans - the Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, and the Pacific - Russian fishing vessels import much of the world’s catch. Russia covers 10 percent of the world's arable land. Most of Russia is made up of huge plains, which are usually steppes further south and wooded further north. The north coast is tundra. At the southern borders of the country are mountainous areas such as the Caucasus (which includes the highest place in Europe, Elbrus, 5,642 m) and the Altai. Similarly, in the eastern parts are the Verkhoyansk Mountains and the Kamchatka Volcanoes.

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