The United States of America (USA) is a constitutional federation located mainly in central North America, consisting of 50 states and one federal administrative district, Washington (DC), and several enclaves. It is the third most populous country in the world. In terms of land area, the United States is the fourth largest country in the world, including waters, and the third largest in the world. Since then, the United States has received migration gains from Latin America and Asia.
The United States is a republic and a federation. Thirteen British settlements were founded by the federal government in the late 18th century. The Declaration of Independence was issued on July 4, 1776, and the country was recognized after the War of Independence in 1783. The U.S. Constitution was enacted in 1787. During the following century, the country expanded, but state differences drove the country into civil war between 1861 and 1865. As a victorious state in World War II, the United States became a military leader in the West. In the 1990s, after the break-up of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only superpower in the world.
Topography and water bodies
The total area of the United States is 9,826,630 km², of which 9,161,923 km² is land and 664,707 km² is water. (The area includes the U.S. “mainland” and Alaska and Hawaii.) It is the third largest state in the world in terms of area. It is divided into three parts: the coastal plains of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, the inland Great Plains, and the Canadian Shield. The great plain spreads east of the Rockies approximately midway across the continent. To its northeast is an area called the Midwest or Corn Zone, whose soil and climate are favorable for agriculture, especially for corn cultivation. To the west, the Great Plains terminate in the Rocky Mountains, which make up much of the western United States. The mountains extend to Canada in the north and almost all the way to Mexico in the south. In the central part, the Rocky Mountains form large north-south queues, the peaks of which rise to two kilometers. There are individual peaks in the north that extend all the way to Alaska. The southernmost part, the Colorado Valley, is a plateau formed by sedimentary rocks one mile above the plains. It is crossed by many gorges, such as the Grand Canyon, sandy deserts, and volcanic peaks. The west coast of the continental United States is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, which exhibits tectonic and volcanic activity and 81 percent of the world’s earthquakes. Earthquakes can wreak havoc, such as the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 or the Good Friday earthquake of 1964 near Anchorage. The state of Minnesota is called the land of ten thousand lakes. The Great Lakes on the U.S.-Canada border form the world’s largest freshwater body. The longest rivers in the United States are Missouri and Mississippi, which also have the largest catchments, but the largest flows are in Saint Lawrence and Ohio and Columbia times in the Great Lakes region.
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