2022 French presidential election

Article

May 23, 2022

The 2022 French presidential election takes place on April 10 and 24, 2022 to elect the President of the French Republic for a five-year term. This is the twelfth presidential election of the Fifth Republic and the eleventh by direct universal suffrage. None of the twelve candidates in the running having won the absolute majority of the votes cast in the first round, a second round is organized between the first two candidates. Arriving at the top of the first round, outgoing President Emmanuel Macron (27.85%) faces Marine Le Pen (23.15%), a duel identical to that of the 2017 election. This is the second time that a second round opposing the same candidates to two consecutive presidential elections takes place after those where Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and François Mitterrand clashed in 1974 and 1981. In third position with 21.95% of the vote, Jean-Luc Mélenchon achieves the highest score of his three candidacies and is well ahead of the left, but fails to reach the second round. Once again, the traditional political parties are absent from the second round, in even greater proportions than during the previous election. The Socialist Party and Les Républicains, represented respectively by Anne Hidalgo and Valérie Pécresse, collapsed with historically low scores and did not reach the 5% threshold, a condition for being reimbursed for campaign expenses. For the first time, the candidacies ranked on the far right exceed the threshold of 30% of the votes cast in the first round while opinion polls suggest a tight duel against the outgoing president, the possibility of a victory for Marine Le Pen being considered by them for the first time. The second round sees Emmanuel Macron winning by 58.55% of the votes cast, thus allowing the outgoing president to begin a second term. The seven-year term having been abolished in 2000, he thus became the first President of the French Republic to be re-elected for a second five-year term, the second President of the Fifth Republic re-elected outside the period of cohabitation and the fourth President of the Fifth Republic re-elected. His investiture for a second five-year term takes place on May 7, 2022.

Background

Policy

Outgoing Presidency of Emmanuel Macron

The 2017 presidential election saw the victory of Emmanuel Macron, who won in the second round over the National Front candidate, Marine Le Pen. Under Article 6 of the French Constitution, the President of the French Republic cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. Emmanuel Macron having acceded for the first time to the supreme magistracy in 2017, he is eligible in 2022 for a second term. The beginnings of the Macron presidency were notably marked by the Benalla affair and the Yellow Vests movement, which pushed him to organize a major national debate. The second part of his five-year term is characterized by a disputed and then postponed plan for pension reform, the establishment of a citizens' convention for the climate, the Covid-19 pandemic and the invasion of Ukraine by Russia in 2022 resulting in Western sanctions against Russia. The reforms and laws passed during his five-year term include in particular modifications to labor law, the reform of the SNCF, a text of moralization of political life, assisted medical procreation for all, double paternity leave, the reform of the unemployment insurance, the overpressure of the ISF transformed into IFI (tax on real estate wealth), the splitting of primary classes into priority education networks, compulsory schooling from the age of three, a reform of the baccalaureate and setting up Parcoursup. During Emmanuel Macron's five-year term, and in particular