2022 Philippine presidential election

Article

May 20, 2022

The 2022 Philippine presidential election is held on May 9, 2022 to elect the new President of the Republic and his Vice President for a six-year term. The two positions are filled in separate elections, which makes cohabitation possible between two elected representatives from different parties. Outgoing President Rodrigo Duterte is ineligible to succeed him, the constitution prohibiting him from serving more than one term. Ferdinand Marcos Junior, nicknamed "Bong Bong Marcos" (BBM) and son of ex-dictator Ferdinand Marcos wins the presidency with a large majority of votes, while the outgoing president's daughter, Sara Duterte, wins the vice presidency with a similar advance.

Context

The presidential election of May 2016 saw the victory of Rodrigo Duterte, of the PDP-Laban party. His running mate Alan Peter Cayetano fails to win the vice-presidency, which is won by the Liberal Party candidate, Leni Robredo. From 2020, and while the conflict in the South China Sea does not seem to be slowing down, voices are being raised about possible interference by China during the election. The vote-counting system comes to the fore when Senator Imee Marcos, sister of 2016 vice-presidential candidate Bongbong Marcos, proposes to reform it. This was automated in 2010 to reduce fraud, but the senator proposes a manual-automatic hybrid system, arguing that the counting of votes must be public. COMELEC for its part affirms that the voting machines deployed under its authority by its partner Smartmatic are reliable up to 99.99%. Philippine elections were, until 2010 and the election of Benigno Aquino III, notoriously prone to fraud under the dagdag-bawas scheme which consisted of illegal transfer of votes from one candidate to another. The Philippine political system is not very democratic. “It is a feudal system where the candidates are movie or television stars, artists or sportsmen from political dynasties rooted in different regions of the country”, indicates David Camroux of the Center for International Research (Ceri) . Two-thirds of deputies and senators come from political dynasties. Leading the polls, the daughter of Rodrigo Duterte and mayor of Davao, Sara Duterte, initially declined any candidacy, even after her father's withdrawal from the vice-presidency race, announcing that she would prefer to devote herself to her municipal mandate. She finally announced her candidacy for the vice-presidency on November 13, two days before the deadline, under the Lakas-CMD label. She becomes the running mate of Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, favorite in the polls;

Electoral system

The President of the Philippines is elected by a first-past-the-post system for a non-renewable six-year term. The candidates for the presidency present themselves in parallel with their running mate candidates for the vice-presidency. In the event of death, dismissal or permanent incapacity of the president, the vice-president ends his mandate. If the duration of this replacement is more than four years, the vice president is subject to the same ban on re-election. The Philippine presidential and vice-presidential elections have the particularity of being organized on the same day but on separate ballots, thus allowing voters to vote for a president while voting for a vice-president who is not necessarily his running mate. The two elected may therefore be from different political sides. In the 2016 election, Liberal Party candidate Leni Robredo, running mate of runner-up presidential candidate Mar Roxas, won by a narrow lead of 0.61% of the vote - the lowest since the election.