United States


November 30, 2021

The United States [etazyni], in long form the United States of America, also informally called the USA [yɛsa] or less exactly America (in English: United States, United States of America, US, USA, America ), are a transcontinental country with the majority of the territory located in North America. The United States has the political structure of a constitutional republic and a presidential federal state made up of fifty states. 48 of the 50 states are adjacent and form the Mainland. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the west, and is bordered to the north by Canada and to the southwest by Mexico. . The two non-bordering states of the Union are Alaska, in northwestern Canada, and Hawaii, an archipelago in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean. In addition, the country includes fourteen island territories scattered across the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific. The country's geography and climate are extremely diverse, home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, making the United States one of the 17 megadiverse countries on the planet. The federal capital, Washington, is located in the District of Columbia, a landlocked area within the Union, but outside of the fifty states. The currency is the US dollar. The flag is made up of thirteen red and white stripes as well as fifty stars representing the thirteen original federated states and fifty current states of the Union. The national anthem is called The Star-Spangled Banner. There is no official language in the United States, although the national language is de facto American English. Before being explored and conquered by Europeans, the country's territory was first occupied by Native Americans who migrated from Eurasia around 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. On May 14, 1607, the English colony of Virginia was founded; subsequently, twelve other British colonies were founded along the Atlantic coast, while other European powers explored the rest of American territory. A series of conflicts between the Thirteen Colonies and Great Britain led to the War of Independence in 1775. The declaration of independence was proclaimed on July 4, 1776, in which the thirteen colonies federated to form the United States of America, the first decolonized nation in the world, recognized by Great Britain at the end of the war in 1783. The contemporary history of the United States is marked by the rivalry between New York and Philadelphia, then by the conquest of the West, the Indian wars and the Civil war. At the beginning of the 20th century, the country became an industrial power which had the means to intervene outside its borders. He participated in the First World War and then suffered the Great Depression at the beginning of the 1930s. Winners of the Second World War alongside the Allies, the United States has been a nuclear power since 1945. Having become a world superpower, they are then confronted with the communist system of the USSR and its allies, this during a period of forty years, designated by the term of "cold war". In 2020, the United States has a population of approximately 331 million, placing it third in the world as such, after China and India. The country covers 9.8 million km2, making it, by criteria, the third or fourth country in the world by area after Russia, Canada and China. The American population is increasing thanks to a positive natural balance and a positive migratory balance. It is marked by great ethnic diversity due to ancient and diverse immigration. The national capitalist-type economy is the largest in the world with the P

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