October 10 is the 283rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the 284th in the case of a leap year. There are 82 days until the end of the year.
It was generally the nineteenth day of the month of Vendémiaire in the French Republican calendar, officially called Sunflower Day.
October 9 - October 10 - October 11
1st century BC. AD
-43: the city of Lugdunum (today Lyon) is founded by the proconsul of Gaul Munatius Plancus (see also the day before, October 9).
680: victorious battle of Kerbala for the Umayyads.
1077: the Byzantine army of the East revolts, and proclaims Emperor Nicephore Botaniatès.
1575: Battle of Dormans (5th religious war). The royal forces of the Duke of Guise crush the Malcontents de Thoré.
1746: the defeated British troops of James St Clair re-embark on British transport, ending the siege of Lorient.
1793: a report by Saint-Just proclaims "revolutionary government until peace", the constitution of 1793 is not applied, and freedoms are suspended, pending the return to order and peace.
1801: Treaty of Paris.
1806: Battle of Saalfeld, victory of the French over the Prusso-Saxon coalition commanded by Prince Louis-Ferdinand of Prussia, who dies during the confrontation below.
1863: Maximilian of Austria accepts the throne of Mexico.
1868: outbreak of the Ten Years War in Cuba.
1911: uprising in Wuchang, start of the Xinhai revolution (cf. Taiwanese feast infra).
1920: Carinthian referendum.
1954: birth of the National Liberation Front in Algeria.
1958: Madagascar obtains a first level of autonomy, as the Malagasy Autonomous Republic, within the French Community.
1967: entry into force of the space treaty.
1970: independence of the Fiji Islands (cf. national holiday infra).
2010: dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.
2017: in Liberia, general elections.
2018: a referendum on a change in the electoral system takes place in Guernsey.
Arts, culture and religion
614: Council of Paris.
1919: premiere of La femme sans ombre, opera by Richard Strauss, in Vienna (Austria).
1982: canonization of Maximilien Kolbe by Pope John Paul II.
1997: opening of the Gallica digital library, by the BNF under Jean-Noël Jeanneney, in French-speaking countries.
2019: Two Nobel Prizes for Literature are awarded this year, because the 2018 one was postponed due to a sexual assault scandal. It is awarded to the Polish Olga Tokarczuk (for 2018), and to the Austrian Peter Handke (for 2019).
Science and technology
1913: end of the opening of the Panama Canal.
Economy and society
1768: earthquake in Haiti.
1780: formation of the Great Ouragan of 1780.
1903: in Manchester, Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst found the Social and Political Women's Union.
1957: Windscale fire.
1964: opening ceremony of the Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, the first Olympic Games organized in Asia and to be broadcast live, in color and in mondovision, followed by 800 million viewers.
1988: formation of hurricane Joan-Miriam.
2015: A bomb attack causes at least 97 dead and 500 wounded, in Ankara.
2016: British-American Oliver Hart and Finn Bengt Holmström receive the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economics in Memory of Alfred Nobel for “their contributions to contract theory”.
1332: Charles II, King of Navarre from 1349 to 1387 († January 1, 1387).
1470: Selim I, Ottoman sultan from 1512 to 1520 († September 20, 152