July 5, 2022

1565 is a common year starting on a Monday.


January 26, India: looting and destruction of the Empire of Vijayanagar by the allied troops of the Muslim sultans of Dekkan. Ramarâya, son of one of Krishna Deva Râya's ministers, had seized power. The sultans form a coalition in Talikota. Ramarâya is defeated and beheaded by the hand of the Sultan of Ahmadnâgar. The capital Vijayanagar was plundered for three days (the Venetian Cesare Federici, who visited the city in 1568, saw only a den of brigands invaded by the jungle). Akbar extends the Mughal Empire to the Deccan. After the fall of the kingdom of Vijayanagar, the Portuguese take new positions on the coast of Karnataka. March 1: Brazil: foundation of São Sebastião de Rio de Janeiro by the Portuguese Estácio de Sá, who becomes its governor. The Portuguese fought to expel all the French from the bay of Rio, who were defeated in 1567. This marked the end of the colony of "Antarctic France", founded in January 1555. April 27: founding of San Miguel (Cebu), the first Spanish settlement in the Phillippines. The Spaniards Legespi and Urdaneta find a return route from the Philippines to Mexico via the Pacific. The Manila Galleon connects Acapulco to the archipelago every year from 1573. May 31: San Miguel de Tucumán is founded in Argentina. June 17, Japan: Yoshiteru Ashikaga, last of the Ashikaga Shoguns, is assassinated; in July; the emperor decrees the expulsion of the Christian missionaries. August 27: foundation of the Audiencia of Santiago de Chile. 28 August: arrival of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés in Florida; he landed on September 6 and founded the colony of St. Augustine, the first Spanish colony north of Mexico. September 20: the Spaniards massacred the French Huguenot settlers of Fort Caroline, in Florida.


Winter 1564-1565 particularly harsh, inducing a bad harvest and a food shortage in 1565-1566, particularly in the Paris region and the Southern Netherlands. January 3: Ivan the Terrible sends a letter to the Patriarch of Moscow in which he presents his grievances against the boyars and his determination to abdicate. He receives a delegation of Muscovites who beg him to return. He agrees to regain power on condition that it is absolute. February 2: Ivan the Terrible returns to Moscow. A Zemski sobor ratifies the decisions taken. In April, Ivan IV inaugurates the oprichnina, which divides the country into two parts: one depending directly on the tsar is administered by the oprichniki and the other, the zemchtchina, by the representatives of the old regime (boyars). These reforms provoke new repressions (3500 boyars are executed) and lead to a serious social and political crisis until 1613. February 11, Hungary: Lazare de Schwendi, General-in-Chief of the Imperial Army, storms the stronghold of Tokay then in the hands of the Turks and seizes a large booty including 4,000 barrels of local wine. Schwendi would be at the origin of the appellation "tokay d'Alsace". February 16: signing of the Breda Compromise by a dozen Dutch nobles gathered at Philippe de Marnix's. February 22: the diet of Piotrkow consecrates the splitting of the Reformed Church of Poland into an “Ecclesia major”, Calvinist, and an “Ecclesia minor”, ​​antitrinitarian. The radical current of antitrinitarians advocates a secularization of religious life and drastic changes in society, such as the abolition of serfdom, private property, the death penalty and war, the refusal of public functions and right to bear arms. March 1: Treaty of Vienna between the sons of Emperor Ferdinand I, who share the Austrian possessions of the Habsburgs. Emperor Maximilian II obtains Lower Austria, Ferdinand Tyrol and Upper Austria