May 23, 2022

1648 is a leap year starting on a Wednesday.



July 24: Jean Le Vacher becomes French consul in Tunis (1648-1653; 1657-1666). He will obtain the foundation of the first chapel intended for public worship, dedicated to Saint Louis. December 4: Étienne de Flacourt, appointed "general commander of the island of Madagascar" disembarks at Fort-Dauphin.


March 23: Treaty of Concordia between the French and the Dutch on the division of Saint-Martin in the West Indies. Poincy sends 58 French settlers led by Mr. Gentes to Saint-Barthélemy. April 19: First Battle of Guararapes. The Portuguese victoriously resume the offensive in Brazil against the Netherlands. May 12: departure from Rio de Janeiro of a Portuguese expedition for the reconquest of Angola led by Salvador de Sá. May, Brazil: departure from São Paulo of the expedition (bandeiras, raid of Indians) of Antônio Raposo Tavares to the south of São Paulo and in what is now Rio Grande do Sul as far as Belém (1648-1651). June 15 , Boston: Margaret Jones is the first person executed for witchcraft in North America. August 15: Salvador Correia de Sá e Benevides, member of the Overseas Council of Lisbon, takes the fortress of São Miguel in the bay of Saint-Paul de Loanda. The Dutch are driven out of São Tomé and Angola by the Portuguese. Portugal reoccupies the country until 1975. Angola becomes the main reservoir of slaves bound for Brazil. The Jesuit missionaries took an active part in this traffic until the middle of the 18th century. September 6, Brazil: prohibition of the navigation of the sugar refineries as long as the Dutch remained the masters of the Atlantic. November 8: Poincy sends 50 French settlers led by Lefort to Marie-Galante.


January 15, Fujian (China): the priest Capillar, accused by the authorities of stirring up agitation and turning young girls away from marriage by wanting to form communities of nuns, is beheaded. January 30: Spain renounces all expansion in Insulindia at the Peace of Münster. April 19, India: Shah Jahan transfers the capital of the Mughal Empire to Shahjahânabad (Delhi) where he builds the Red Fort and the Great Jâmi-masjid Mosque. August 8, Ottoman Empire: Sultan Ibrahim I is deposed and replaced by his seven-year-old son Mehmed IV (end of reign in 1687). Ibrahim was assassinated on August 18. Palace plots of the sultan's mother and grandmother. Army rebellions in Istanbul. Revolts in the provinces. September 20: the Russian explorer Simon Dejnev discovers the Bering Strait. October 18: France takes possession of the Saintes islands. In the Moluccas, the Dutch East India Company uproots all the clove trees that are not its not necessary. Revolts broke out in Amboyna (1648) and Ternate (1650). Dutch garrisons are massacred. The repression is atrocious. The plantations are destroyed, the inhabitants deported from one island to another, a large number are imprisoned and attempts are made to impose Christianity by force. Famine in Madras, India. In Izmir, in the Ottoman Empire, Sabbataï Tsevi proclaims himself the messiah awaited by the Jews.


January 21: In Ukraine, the Zaporozhian Cossacks ally with the Crimean Tatars against Poland. Beginning of the Zaporozhian insurrection against the Polish nobility (ending in 1651) led by the Polish gentleman Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1595-1657), victim of a denial of justice. They walk west. January 30: separate Hispano-Dutch peace signed in Münster. The King of Spain recognizes the independence of the United Provinces (completion of the Eighty Years' War), accepts the closure of the Scheldt to traffic (asphyxiation of Antwerp) and cedes to the States General the territories conquered by Frederick -Henr