1871

Article

May 20, 2022

Events

Africa

March 9: universal male suffrage is granted to two “French” communes in Senegal: Saint-Louis and Gorée (later Dakar and Rufisque). Their deputies will sit in the National Assembly. April: the Khedive of Egypt installs as governor in Massawa a Swiss adventurer named Werner Münzinger, who quickly occupies Asmara, Kérén (1872) and northern Ethiopia, which he proclaims a province of Egypt. He will be massacred with his Egyptian troops by the Afars in 1875. June 21: Battle of May Zulawu, in the Ethiopian Civil War between the army of Tekle Giyorgis II and that of Dejazmatch Kassa Mercha, future Yohannes IV. July 11: Battle of Assam, in the Adoua region; The Negusse Negest Tekle Giyorgis II is defeated by Kassa Mercha who imprisons and deposits him. August 22-26: a Nyamwezi chief, Mirambo (c. 1840-1884), after having formed an army of Ruga-Ruga mercenaries, attacks Tabora (Tanzania), a stopover station for Arab traders between the coast and the Great Lakes, and sets fire to partially the city. He constitutes a kingdom around Unyanyembe which will not survive his death. The Arabs of the coast wage war on him in vain (1871-1875). August 23: King Serer Maat Sine Coumba Ndoffène Famak Diouf is assassinated in Joal by the French. October 27: the British annex Grikaland (district of Kimberley). This region is rich in diamond mines, located north of the Cape Colony. A large number of adventurers, called Uitlanders (outsiders) by the Boers of Orange and Transvaal, flock to the region and sow disorder. November 2: Treaty of Sumatra. The Dutch establishments of Ghana (Goudkust) are transferred to the United Kingdom which founds the Gold Coast (colony in 1874) against the British rights on Sumatra. November 3: Cape Colony takes over the government of Basutoland (now Lesotho). November 10: British journalist and explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley, dispatched by the New York Herald, finds British explorer David Livingstone in Ujiji on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. During the famous meeting, he would have simply pronounced his famous sentence: “Dr Livingstone, I presume”, untranslatable, outside the context of the time and British education. The two men together circumnavigate Lake Tanganyika and establish that it does not communicate with the Nile basin, contrary to the ideas of John Hanning Speke. Bag of Massenya. The army of Ali, king of Ouaddaï (central Sudan), defeats that of the mbang of Baguirmi and imposes an annual tribute on it. Ali's kingdom becomes the most prosperous in the region.

North Africa

January 23: the spahis regiments of Moudjeben, near Boghari, and Aïn Guettar (Gambetta), south of Souk Ahras, refuse to embark for the metropolis to fight alongside the French against the Prussians. March 16: Beginning of the Mokrani revolt, the largest uprising since the conquest of Algeria, led by Sheikh Mohamed Amekran and Chikh Aheddad, leader of the Rahmaniya brotherhood, in Kabylia. March 29: Admiral de Gueydon becomes Civil Governor General of Algeria (end in 1873). He works to restore calm. It is responsible for the installation of Alsatians-Lorrainers, in application of the laws of June 21 and September 15 and the decree of October 16, 1871 allocating land to them. The municipality of Algiers opposes little resistance to his taking office. The movement is fading. May 5: the bachagha El Mokrani is killed near the Soufflat wadi. July 13: Sheikh Aheddad and his sons surrender after the battle of Icheriden on June 24. The insurrection only ended after the capture of Bou-Mezrag on January 20, 1872. October 24: the regency of Tunis is re