1890

Article

August 15, 2022

1890 is a common year starting on a Wednesday.

Events

Africa

January 1: in Italy, a royal decree announces the constitution of the colony of Eritrea. January 6: Beginning of the reign of Béhanzin, King of Dahomey (end in 1894). January 7: departure from Tippou Tib for Zanzibar. His nephew Rachid bin Mohammed succeeds him as wali (governor) of the district of Stanley Falls (Kisangani). January 11: a British ultimatum demands that Portugal evacuate the territory of Makololo and Mashona, in Chiré, south of Lake Nyassa. For fear of a conflict with Great Britain, Portugal preferred to withdraw from the territories it occupied south of Lake Nyassa. The British imposed a protectorate there (Nyassaland). Portugal and the United Kingdom reach a compromise at the end of which Portugal renounces its trans-African ambitions (pink card) but receives significant territorial compensation (Treaty of London, August 20). January 12: departure from Biskra of the Foureau expedition to the Sahara and Tademaït (end in March). February 13: Beginning of the reign of Seyyid Ahmed ibn Thoeïn, Sultan of Zanzibar (end in 1896). 20 - 23 February: occupation of Cotonou by the troops of Lieutenant-Colonel Terrillon. France attempts a coup against Dahomey. The navy bombards Cotonou and massacres part of its population; Béhanzin fails to retake the city on March 4. April 6: capture of Ségou, defended by Madani, son of Ahmadou Tall, by Colonel Louis Archinard; France conquers the Niger basin. Ahmadou, who had fallen back on Nioro, retaliated by attacking the lines of communication of the French troops in Kayes. He continued the resistance until his death in 1895. April 20: Béhanzin resumes the offensive against the French whom he pushes to retirement during a victorious battle at Atchoupa near Porto-Novo, but suffers heavy losses and he must return to Abomey. 4 May: bombardment and capture of Kilwa by the Germans; Lindi was taken on May 10, Mikindani fell without a fight on the 13th. May: treaty between the British and Samori Touré, who buys modern weapons in Sierra Leone and trains his troops in European fashion, while the French encourage an animist insurrection that sets his states ablaze. June 1: Trade treaty between Germany and Morocco concluded in Fez by Ambassador Tattenbach. June 16: Louis Archinard takes Koniakary; citadel of the Toucouleurs in the Diombocko. June 27: Italian victory over the Mahdists at the Battle of Agordat in Eritrea. the king of the Lozi Lewanika (eastern Caprivi, Zambia) signs a protectorate treaty with the British South Africa Company. July 1: Heligoland-Zanzibar treaty. Germany signs a treaty with the United Kingdom which grants it the support of the territories of the Deutsche Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft. Tanganyika becomes a German colony. The Sultan of Zanzibar is forced to cede this territory, in exchange for an indemnity of 4 million marks. More than 54 military engagements, accompanied by deaths, destruction of villages, livestock or crops, took place in Tanganyika from 1889 to 1896. July 1: arrival in Matabeleland of the first column of pioneers of the British South Africa Company led by Major Frank Johnson. Cecil Rhodes occupies the left bank of the Limpopo (current Botswana, Zimbabwe). Invasion of Rhodesia by 1,200 White soldiers and 1,600 Black auxiliaries. Lobengula and his best soldiers must emigrate to Northern Rhodesia. The 280,000 head of cattle belonging to the Ndebele are confiscated by the BSAC and 40,000 are redistributed to the settlers. 200 white settlers settle in Southern Rhodesia, surrounded by 500 armed men. July 2: Closing of the international conference in Brussels for the abolition of slavery. July 17: Cecil Rhodes becomes Prime Minister of