1908

Article

August 15, 2022

1908 is a leap year starting on a Wednesday.

In brief

June 30: Tunguska event. July 23: Young Turk Revolution in the Ottoman Empire. October 5: independence of the Kingdom of Bulgaria. October 6: the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary provokes the Bosnian crisis.

Events

Africa

January 4: deposition of the sultan of Morocco Abdelaziz by the ulemas of Fez and proclamation of the sultan of Marrakech, Moulay Hafid, opposed to the Algeciras agreements. January 5: General d'Amade takes command of the expeditionary force responsible for the pacification of Morocco in Casablanca; he directs the repression and leads bloody battles in February and March against the Chaouïa. The workforce is increased to 14,000 men. February 18: William Merlaud-Ponty becomes Governor General of the AOF (end in 1916). François Joseph Clozel replaces him as governor of French Sudan (end in 1915). March 29: French victory over the kingdom of Ouaddaï in the battle of Dokotchi. May 1: Gabriel Angoulvant, appointed on February 18, takes office as lieutenant-governor of Ivory Coast. Faced with the insurrection of the Abé, the Baoulé and the Bété, he undertook the pacification of the country (1908-1916): military operations, internment, war fines, regrouping of villages. May 16: General Lyautey is appointed High Commissioner of the French Republic on the Algerian-Moroccan border. 19-23 May: transfer of the capital of western Sudan from Kayes to Bamako, after the construction of the administrative city of Koulouba (1903-1907). 10 June: the commander of the territory of Timbuktu-Niamey Laverdure defeats the Tuareg Igouadaren, Kel -Temoulaït and Imdedren in Banéi and obtains their submission. June 16: decisive French victory over the kingdom of Ouaddaï in the battle of Djoua. August 3: prohibition of the cult of Aberewa in the Gold Coast. August 19: the army of the sultan of Morocco Moulay Abdelaziz is beaten at Tamelelt near El'Kelaa by the forces of his brother Moulay Hafid, south of the Oum Er R'bia river. Abdelaziz abdicates and retires to Tangier. October 19: the Belgian Chamber votes the annexation of the Congo founded by the King of the Belgians Leopold II, effective November 15. Belgium adopts a “colonial charter” adopting the principle of “rational colonization”. December: preaching by Kamwana (en) in Nyasaland. He baptizes more than 9,000 people in the name of the Kitawala Christian religious movement, adapted from Jehovah's Witnesses. He was arrested in March 1909, then deported to the Seychelles, which sparked a revolt. Creation of the Peoples Union, Nigeria's first political party. Creation of the Aurore de Saint-Louis association by young Senegalese intellectuals who had studied in the West. It became the Senegalese Youth Club in 1912 and became politicized.

America

February 17, Mexico: Porfirio Díaz, interviewed by James Creelman, of the American version of Pearson's Magazine, announces that he accepts the presence of an opposition candidate in the 1910 elections. A large landowner, Francisco Indalecio Madero , took the initiative to call for honest elections in his book, La Succession Présidentiel en 1910, which was published in December and was a great success. He creates an anti-reelectionist party that threatens the regime, then is imprisoned. July 2: military coup in Paraguay. President Benigno Ferreira is deposed and replaced by the vice-president, Emiliano González Navero (es) (end in 1910).November 3: election of William Howard Taft (R) as President of the United States. November 10, Montana: the Gideon movement has Bibles placed in hotel rooms for the first time. December 19: Juan Vicente Gómez ousts dictator Cipriano Castro in Venezuela in a coup and stands