1934

Article

January 23, 2022

1934 is a common year starting on a Monday.

In brief

February 6: anti-parliamentary demonstration in Paris. February 12-14: Austrian Civil War. 29 - 30 June: 1st night of the "night of the Long Knives". October 20: start of the Long March. December 1: The assassination of Kirov triggers a major purge in the Soviet Union.

Events

Africa

January 19: creation of the higher college of Yaba near Lagos. March 2: founding of the Neo-Destour party by Habib Bourguiba at the congress of Ksar Hellal in Tunisia. May 8: the visit of Sultan Sidi Mohammed to Fez is the occasion for nationalist demonstrations. June 20: creation of the rural normal school of Katibougou (Mali). July 10: Inauguration of the Congo-Ocean railway, linking Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire (cost: 230 million gold francs against 93 planned). 127,250 men were needed to build this 512 km long line. The death of 18,000 to 23,000 workers on the site alerted public opinion in mainland France. July 29: Galandou Diouf is elected deputy of Senegal (end in 1941). July: Mombasa dockers' strike. August 3-5: Anti-Jewish riot in Constantine; bloody clashes between Jews and Arabs leave twenty-eight dead, including twenty-five Jews and three Muslims. September 1: launch of L’Étudiant noir in Paris. September 3: Bourguiba and the leaders of Neo-Destour are arrested and placed under house arrest in southern Tunisia. December 5: border incident near Welwel between Italian Somalia and the Empire of Ethiopia which decides to carry the conflict before the League of Nations (January 2, 1935).

America

January 1: arrest of Leonard Howell, one of the founders of the Rastafari movement. January 15: the government of Ramón Grau San Martín is overthrown in Cuba by the maneuvers of Colonel Fulgencio Batista; Carlos Mendieta succeeds him as president. January 25: creation of the University of São Paulo. February 21: the National Guard of Nicaragua, on Somoza's orders, captures and executes Sandino in Managua. April 26: decree establishing the eight-hour working day in Colombia. May 25 : Bolivian victory over Paraguay at the Battle of Cañada Strongest. May 29: new treaty of relations between Cuba and the United States. The Platt Amendment is removed from the Cuban Constitution. A commercial reciprocity treaty is signed on August 24. July 16, Brazil: reform of the Constitution to establish a corporatist regime. Getúlio Vargas comes up against the communists (Aliança Nacional Libertadora) led by Carlos Prestes and the integralists, Brazilian fascists (Ação Integralista Brasileira) led by Plínio Salgado. He was elected President of the Republic for four years by the new National Assembly. August 7: Alfonso López Pumarejo takes office as president of Colombia after his victory in the February 10 elections (ending in 1938). He launched the "revolution on the march" to consolidate the liberal hold on the state and weaken the internal opposition of the liberal party. The state becomes the arbiter of social conflicts and facilitates the creation of unions. August 21: the marines leave Haiti, occupied since 1915, without having succeeded in consolidating democracy. September 1: beginning of the populist government of José María Velasco Ibarra in Ecuador (1934-1935, 1944-1947, 1952-1956, 1960-1961, 1968-1972). November 11-16: first Afro-Brazilian congress in Recife organized by Gilberto Freyre. November 27: Villa Montes corralito in Bolivia. Bolivian President Daniel Salamanca Urey was overthrown by a military pronunciamiento and replaced the next day by Vice-President José Luis Tejada Sorzano (end in 1936). November 30, 1940). He manages

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