1944

Article

November 30, 2021

1944 is a leap year beginning on a Saturday.

In short

March: the Japanese retreat into the Pacific. June 6: Normandy landings. June 22: Operation Bagration July 22: Bretton Woods agreements. August 15: landing in Provence. August 25: liberation of Paris. November : in China, following Operation Ichi-Go, the Japanese captured all US bombing bases except Chongqing. In Japan, the Americans are bombing cities from bases in the Mariana Islands. start of the Kremnička and Nemecká Massacres. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to the International Committee of the Red Cross (awarded retroactively in 1945).

Events

Africa

January 11: The nationalist party Istiqlal publishes a manifesto for the independence of Morocco. January 29: independence demonstrations in the streets of Rabat, Salé and Fez (January 30-February 7) repressed by the army, in Fez in particular. January 30: Free France meets the Brazzaville conference (ending February 8). De Gaulle asserts the need to engage the colonies "on the road to new times". The idea of ​​autonomy in the colonies is dismissed. February 20: Mutiny by the Force publique in Luluabourg in Kasai, Belgian Congo. March 7: ordinance granting civil equality to Muslims in Algeria granting the right to vote to 60,000 Algerians. March 14: creation of the Friends of the manifesto and freedom in Algeria. March 31-April 24: mutiny by Greek troops against the Greek Government in exile in Egypt. April 4, Algeria: entry into the French National Liberation Committee of two Communists, François Billoux and Fernand Grenier. April 8: sidelining of General Giraud, who loses his post as Commander-in-Chief of the Armies. April 14: conference on Africa organized in New York by the CAA (Council on African Affairs (en)). It revives the idea of ​​a Fifth Pan-African Congress. July 5: decree amputating French Sudan by nearly 300,000 km2 and more than 120,000 inhabitants: part of the circles of Kayes, Nioro, Néma and Timbuktu are attributed to Mauritania (Hodh Ech Chargui and current Hodh El Gharbi). October 1: formation of the Kenya African National Union. October 5: First Africans in the Legislative Council in Kenya. October 28: Creation of the Association of Evolved from Stanleyville, Belgian Congo. November 30-December 1: mutinies in Thiaroye, Senegal. The "tirailleurs" demanded equal pay and demobilization bonus with French soldiers. The repression causes 35 dead, 35 seriously injured and 15 mutineers are condemned. December 19: restoration of the sovereignty of Ethiopia. The agreements of January 31, 1942 and December 1944 return to Hailé Selassie the government of Ethiopia. Creation in London of the Pan-African Federation (PAF).

America

January 15: earthquake in San Juan, Argentina. January 26: Argentine President Pedro Pablo Ramírez cuts off Argentina’s diplomatic relations with Germany and Japan. February 24: General Ramírez announces his resignation following an internal struggle in the army. General Edelmiro Julián Farrell, hostile to the allies, became president in Argentina on March 10 (ended in 1946). March: Colombian President López submits his resignation for family reasons. A civic strike organized by the working class to express its support forces him to continue his mandate. May 8, Costa Rica: start of the mandate of Teodoro Picado Michalski, President of Costa Rica. Calderón, who relies on the Communists and the Catholic Church, has Michalski elected after a fraudulent procedure (ended in 1948). May 9: Salvadoran dictator Maximiliano Hernández Martínez is overthrown. May 10: Declaration of Philadelphia.

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