1945

Article

January 21, 2022

1945 is a common year starting on a Monday.

In brief

4 - 11 February: Yalta conference. February 19: Kremnička and Nemecká massacres end May 8: Germany surrenders. May-June: massacres of Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata. May-July: Franco-British crisis in the Levant. 17 July-2 August: Potsdam conference. August 6 and 9: atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. September 2: Japan surrenders. November 20: opening of the Nuremberg trial. December 3: The cost of the armament that was used during the Second World War is made public, that is to say more than 1,000 billion US dollars.

International Relations

April 25: opening in San Francisco of the United Nations conference responsible for drawing up the charter of the new international organization adopted by the 50 founding States on June 26. The Charter of the United Nations marks the birth of the UN, which replaces the League of Nations. It establishes its headquarters in New York. October 13: creation of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) by 44 countries. October 16: foundation in Quebec of the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) by the UN, its headquarters are established in Rome in 1951. October 24: entry into force of the Charter of the United Nations (foundation of the UN) with the ratification by China, the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the USSR and by the majority of the other signatory countries . October 24 of each year is celebrated as United Nations Day. November 16: creation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). December 27: Foundation of the World Bank by 28 nations.

Events

Africa

January : riots in several towns in Uganda against low wages and the rising cost of living. publication of the Voice of the Congolese. The review appeared regularly from 1945 to 1959 under the authority of its editor-in-chief Antoine-Roger Bolamba. March 6: publication of the Richards constitution in Nigeria. 8 - 13 May, French Algeria: massacre of Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata. Nationalist riots in Oranais on the occasion of the celebration of the Nazi surrender. The repression carried out by the French authorities caused several thousand deaths. June, Algeria: an unusual drought aggravated by an invasion of locusts causes the wheat crisis. The metropolis organizes humanitarian aid for the French departments of Algeria. June 22 - August 4: protest campaign and general strike in Nigeria orchestrated by Nnamdi Azikiwe. August 31: final communiqué of the Paris conference on Tangier which demands the evacuation by Spain of the Tangier area and establishes a provisional regime. September 2: Colonial Development and Welfare Act. September 5: the Cameroon Settlers Association (Ascocam), formed on April 15 in Yaoundé, meets in Douala for the States General of Colonization. They reaffirm the settlers' attachment to the most retrograde forms of colonization in opposition to the decisions of the Brazzaville Conference. 24 - 26 September: strikes in Douala. Nationalist riots break out in the French part of Cameroon and are bloodily repressed. 15 - 21 October: the 5th Pan-African Congress in Manchester proclaims the "determination of Africans to be free". Kwame Nkrumah creates a West African National Secretariat, actively supported by WASU (West Africa Students Union) to concretely implement its resolutions. This movement promotes the idea of ​​a West African Federation, the first step towards the realization of a United States of Africa. October 20: strike by African employees of the railways of Bulawayo in Rhodesia. October 22: slogan of a general strike in the Belgian Congo on the quest

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