Article

November 30, 2021

1975 is a common year starting on a Wednesday.

In short

February 3: start of the Angolan civil war. April 4: Creation of the Microsoft company. April 13: start of the war in Lebanon. April 17: capture of Phnom Penh by the Khmer Rouge. April 30: fall of Saigon. June: revolt movements in India. July 11: Divorce by mutual consent is authorized in France. July 15-24: Apollo-Soyuz mission. August 14: Jean-Claude Borelly composes Dolannes Melody, cult single from the 1970s. November 20: death of Franco.

International relations

January: resumption in Geneva of SALT-II negotiations between the USSR and the United States to specify the quantitative and qualitative limitations of the armaments of the two countries (ended in 1979). June 19 - July 2: World conference organized in Mexico by the United Nations on the occasion of International Women's Year. October 9: the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to the Soviet Andrei Sakharov, who cannot claim his prize. November 15: in Rambouillet (France), President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing brings together the heads of state of the five most industrialized countries (United States, Japan, FRG, France and United Kingdom), an informal meeting which will now be held annually with Canada and Italy, forming the G7. December 1 - 5: Second visit to China since Richard Nixon in February 1972 by a President of the United States, Gerald Ford. December 9: Declaration of the rights of people with disabilities. December 16 - 19: organization in Paris of the first Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CCEI), commonly known as the North-South Conference, bringing together eight industrialized countries, eight OPEC members and eleven developing countries. Four committees are to prepare for the February 1976 conference.

Events

Africa

February 21: Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs is elected President of South Africa. February 28: Lomé Agreement (Lomé I) between the EEC and 46 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. Over five years, 3.5 billion units of account (pre-1971 dollars), mostly in the form of grants, contribute to financing development. A mechanism, the Stabex, stabilizes the receipts drawn from exports, threatened by the fall in the prices of raw materials; articles manufactured by these 46 countries, as well as the vast majority of their agricultural products, are exempt from customs duties, without reciprocity being required. March 4: Houphouët-Boigny IX government in Ivory Coast. March 22: abolition of the Ethiopian monarchy by the Derg April 4: sent to negotiate the release of two French hostages to Hissène Habré in the context of the Françoise Claustre affair, Commander Pierre Galopin is arrested, sentenced to death and then executed. April 5: Ahmadou Ahidjo is re-elected President of Cameroon. April 13: military coup in Chad. François Tombalbaye is killed. Released, Félix Malloum took power on April 15 at the head of a higher military council (ended in 1979). May 9: A constitutional revision created the post of Prime Minister in Cameroon. Paul Biya becomes Prime Minister on June 30. May 28: Foundation in Lagos of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS or ECOWAS in English). Composed of 16 members, it is dominated by Nigeria, the most populous and richest nation in the region. June 2: release of political prisoners, former collaborators of Modibo Keïta in Mali (June 2 and November 19). June 10: Gabon joins the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. June 13: the American ambassador to Somalia protests against the establishment of a Soviet base in Berbera June 25: independence of Mozambique, a former Portuguese colony, q

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