1980

Article

May 20, 2022

1980 is a leap year starting on a Tuesday.

In brief

January 4: Beginning of the grain embargo against the USSR. March 24: Civil war in El Salvador. May 8: Smallpox is officially declared eradicated by WHO. May 18: Gwangju uprising in South Korea. June 22-23: G7 summit in Venice. August 31: the Gdańsk agreement authorizes the existence of free trade unions in Poland. September 22: Beginning of the Iran-Iraq War. The coming to power of Ronald Reagan in the United States and Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom marks the beginning of the “Conservative Revolution”.

Events

Africa

January 13: new constitution in Togo; official proclamation of the Third Republic. January 26 - February 3: events in Gafsa in Tunisia. March 1-12, Western Sahara War: failure of Operation Imann. Rout of the Moroccan army in Djebel Ouarkziz in southern Morocco against the Polisario Front. March 4: announcement of the results of the free elections held on February 27-29 in Southern Rhodesia, won by the Patriotic Front of Robert Mugabe. March 11-April 20: Beginning of the Berber Spring in Algeria, during which the Berbers demand the officialization of the Tamazight language. Strikes and riots in Kabylia and Algiers. General strike in Kabylie from April 16, repressed from April 20 (Mizrana operation). March 17, Mali: student demonstrations against Moussa Traoré's regime are violently repressed. Student leader Abdoul Karim Camara aka “Cabral” dies under torture. March 21: resumption of the civil war in Chad. Hissène Habré breaks with the GUNT and seizes part of N'Djamena. Goukouni Oueddei appeals for Libyan aid and a mutual defense treaty is announced on June 15. April 1: Lusaka declaration. Nine countries (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi and Zimbabwe) are setting up a South African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) in Lusaka. Malawi joins SADCC, without severing its relations with South Africa. April 5: Ahmadou Ahidjo, the only candidate, is re-elected President of the Republic of Cameroon. April 12: Military coup by Sergeant Samuel Doe in Liberia. April 18: entry into force of the Constitution of Zimbabwe. Rhodesia becomes Zimbabwe and abandons apartheid. Black majority authority in Zimbabwe established by Robert Mugabe (ZANU), Prime Minister of a reconciliation government. Bob Marley is invited to the ceremony to play. April 24: Mohamed Mzali government in Tunisia. 28 - 29 April: extraordinary summit of the OAU in Lagos. Lagos Plan of Action for the establishment of an African Economic Community by the year 2000 to ensure the economic, cultural and social integration of the continent. 9 - 15 June: OAU Ministerial Conference held in Banjul in The Gambia. Amendment of the Charter proposing to define three new essential missions: the maintenance of peace and security, the protection of human rights and the rapid resolution of crises. 1st - 4th July: the OAU summit in Freetown opposes the partisans of Morocco and those of the Polisario Front supported by Algeria in the conflict of Western Sahara. SADR admission is suspended. July 31: destruction of the statue of Cecil Rhodes in Salisbury, Zimbabwe. August: start of construction of the sand wall in Western Sahara. Early October: military intervention by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in Chad in support of the GUNT. In December, Hissène Habré was driven out of N'Djamena and withdrew to the east of the country. October 10: a magnitude 7.2 earthquake caused 3,000 victims in El Asnam (formerly Orléansville) in Algeria. October 12: Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the only candidate, is re-elected President of